Behavioral Ecology Study Guide

Behavioral Ecology Study Guide - Behavioral Ecology Study...

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Behavioral Ecology Study Guide Tinbergen’s 4 questions: * function : why the bird sings: birds sing to attract mates for breeding * causation: what causes the bird to sing (hormone levels with daylight changes) * development: how the behavior arose: birds sing because they have learned the songs from their parents and neighbors * evolution : how the song had evolved in starlings from their avian ancestors Proximate causation: immediate, a stimulus that causes a behavior to appear -ex. Biparental care, why does the male take care of the baby? (because the female told him to) Ultimate Causation: long term, evolution of behavior, why this kind of behavior and not another kind; -biparental care, why does the female NEED the male to take care of? Why not just one? What evolutionary needs led to this behavior? Charles Darwin: Origin of the Species (1859) interested in adaptation, how do species change over time? *individuals within a species vary in morphology, and behavior ( variation) *some variation is heritable * must be competition -adaptation is the close association between the animal and its environment -he did not start the idea of evolution -How do you explain adaptation? 1. the potential for overpopulation 2. genetic variation 3. natural selection
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*he didn’t see overpopulation, and realized it was because of natural selection (not an active process) *individuals that were best suited for the environment survived (best genetic variance) *given sufficient genetic variation, natural selection can select for the best genotype available, and over many generations can develop specializations and as long as these specializations exist genetically, the environment can select for it; the genes MUST exist *if the gene does not exist, specialization stops and selection stops *ways to deal with cold: all are selected for because they are all adaptable for the evironment -build a fur coat (if you can genetically) -migrate south -hibernate Textbook: Genetic Variation *genetic mutants + drosophilia—selecting for slow and fast maters *genetic differences + cricket calls---selected for males which called a lot an those who rarely called (showing variation in calling duration had a genetic component) Selfish individuals vs. Group advantage *behavior of advantage to individuals may be disadvantageous to the group *many traits evolve even though they are disadvantageous to the group (new male lion kills other babies; not to group, but is to male so the females go back into estrous) FOR INDIVIDUAL *Wynne-Edwards: if a population over-exploited its food resources it would go extinct and so adaptations have evolved to ensure that each group or species controls its rate of consumption. They will restrict their birth rate to prevent over-population, delaying onset of breeding, fewer
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Behavioral Ecology Study Guide - Behavioral Ecology Study...

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