Child Development

Child Development - Child Development January 28, 2008...

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Child Development January 28, 2008 Chapter 1 Child Dev How children change and grow from infancy through childhood - physically - cognitively-mental abilities- how they solve problems, - socioemotionally- how they interact with others - multi-disciplinary Infants and Toddlers - birth through age 3 Early childhood - ages 3 to 7 Middle childhood - ages 7 to 12 Adolescence - ages 12 and up What shapes development? Nature- Genetic material inherited from parents Nurture- ex. Poor nutrition Environmental conditions provided by parents and society Answer- both - behavior genetics- how they interact - study processes or identical and fraternal twins - genetic link for many traits such as IQ Theories of Child Development An explanation of how facts fit together – a framework Summarize facts as currently known Allow prediction of future behavior, hypothesises Provide guidance to parents, explain how children behave Stimulate new research, guide hypothesizes and questions we ask Filters for identifying relevant information Major Theories Psychoanalytic theories - different groups of theories focus on different aspects of development - psycholoanalytic focus on personality - affects of onconcous mind on personalites Focus is on structure of personality and how conscious and unconscious thoughts influence behavior and development Best known theorists Sigmund Freud Erik Erikson Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) The mind consists of three basic components the id – primitive instincts, completely unconscious, inherited from ancestors,
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the ego – rational thought, realistic ways to satisfy id and superego the superego – ethics, morals, conscience Constant state of conflict between the three components - 10% of the mind is conscious 5 stages of Psycho-sexual development 1. Oral: Age 0 - 2 2. Anal: Age 2 – 3 - toddlers needed enough stimulation - to much or to little caused fixation and blocked development - ego developes to control id 3. Phallic: Age 3 – 7 - jealousy and hatred for same sex parent(rival for attention), attraction to opposite sex parent - identify w. same sex parent, copies superego 4. Latency: Age 7 – 11 - dormancy, repressed sexually 5. Genital: Age 11 – adult - sexual desires reawaken Current thinking on Freud - Freud’s theory generally viewed as too focused on unconscious and sexual impulses - One of eariest thinkers Many concepts proposed by Freud are commonly accepted childhood as a stage of development id, ego, superego Oedipal complex Erik Erikson (1902-1994) Psycho social theory – a revision of Freud’s which focused more on personality development through a series of conflicts – successful mastery of conflicts resulting in increased good judgment and good behavior Views personality development as life-long process Erikson’s stages of development - in book Behaviorism and Social Learning Theories a response to unobservable and immeasurable concepts proposed by psychoanalytic theories focus is on
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Child Development - Child Development January 28, 2008...

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