Chapter 7 1. The breakdown of exposed rock into small fragments and dissolved ions is termed _.-Weathering 2. The removal of detritus from weathered rock at an outcrop is termed _.-Erosion 3. The majority of the rocks that occur at the surface of Earth are _. Sedimentary 4. Geologically, medium-sized sediment refers to _. 5. Frost wedging, root wedging, and salt wedging are all examples of _. 6. Hydrolysis, oxidation, and hydration are all examples of _. 7. Chemical weathering takes place most rapidly in environments that are _. 8. Rapid physical weathering _. 9. Rapid chemical weathering _. 10. A pile of rubble at the base of an outcrop derived from weathered rock upslope is geologically termed _. 11. The chemical reaction that transforms feldspar into clay is an example of _. 12. The rusting of iron and iron-rich minerals is an example of _. 13. Swelling of certain minerals due to incorporation of water into their crystal lattice is termed _. 14. On Earth, loose sediment which covers bedrock and has been chemically altered by reactions with rainwater and the addition of organic matter by the biosphere is termed _. 15. On the Moon, loose sediment covering bedrock is termed _. 16. Topsoil consists of which soil horizon(s)? 17. Which soil horizon is the zone of accumulation, so named because dissolved matter, leached from other parts of the soil, precipitates to form new minerals. 18. Which soil horizon is uppermost?
19. Which soil horizon is chemically most similar to the underlying bedrock or unaltered sediment? 20. Which soil horizon has the greatest proportion of organic matter? 21. Caliche is most commonly found in which type of environments? 22. Laterite soils are most commonly found in which type of environments? 23. Lithified detritus (breakdown products of preexisting rocks) forms which kind of sedimentary rock? 24. Cemented shells of marine organisms form which kind of sedimentary rock? 25. Physical precipitation of gypsum due to evaporation of seawater produces which kind of sedimentary rock? 26. Clastic sedimentary rocks are primarily classified on the basis of _. 27. If water is the transport medium of sediment, the grain size of sedimentary deposits most closely indicates the _. 28. Compaction and cementation of grains occurs during _. 29. Which transport medium carries the largest particles? 30. It is unusual for _ to carry grains larger than sand. 31. The difference between breccia and conglomerate is that conglomerate _. 32. As compared to arkose, quartz sandstone _. 33. Mud, sand, and lithic clasts comprise sedimentary rock termed _. 34. A clastic rock comprised of sand-sized grains derived from the physical weathering of granite and containing a sizable proportion of feldspar is termed _. 35.
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