Unformatted text preview: Document A: Battle of the Yarmuk (Modified)
Muslim forces took control of Syria in 636 CE when they fought the Eastern
Roman Empire (which included Greece) at the Battle of Yarmuk. This
account, written by Muslim historian Ahmad al-Biladuri in the 800s CE,
describes the battle. The Muslims gathered together, and the Greek army marched against
them. The Greeks and their followers in this battle tied themselves to each
other by chains, so that none of them would run away. The battle they
fought at al-Yarmuk was of the fiercest and bloodiest kind. In this battle
24,000 Muslims took part. By Allah's help, some 70,000 of them [the
Greeks] were put to death, and their remnants took to flight, reaching as
far as Palestine, Antioch, Aleppo, Mesopotamia and Armenia. In the battle
of al-Yarmuk certain Muslim women took part and fought violently. Among
them was Hind, daughter of 'Utbah and mother of Mu'awivah ibn-abiSufyan, who repeatedly exclaimed, "Cut the arms of these non-Muslims
with your swords!"
Source: Al-Biladuri, “The Battle of the Yarmuk (636) and After,” written in
the 800s CE.
remnants: rest of the army STANFORD HISTORY EDUCATION GROUP sheg.stanford.edu Document B: Treaty of Tudmir (Modified)
This treaty was signed in 713 CE between ‘Abd al-‘Aziz, the commander of
the Muslim forces invading Spain, and Theodemir, the Christian King of a
region in southern Spain. In the name of God, the merciful and compassionate. We [Abd al-Aziz’s
forces] will not harass him [Theodmir], nor remove him from power. His
followers will not be killed or taken prisoner, nor will they be separated from
their women and children. They will not be coerced in matters of religion,
their churches will not be burned, nor will sacred objects be taken from the
realm, as long as he remains sincere and fulfills these conditions that we
have set for him: He will not give shelter to fugitives, nor to our enemies,
nor encourage any protected person to fear us, nor conceal news of our
enemies. He and [each of] his men shall [also] pay one dinar every year,
together with four measures of wheat, four measures of barley, four liquid
measures of concentrated fruit juice, four liquid measures of vinegar, four
of honey, and four of olive oil. Slaves must each pay half of this amount.
Source: The Treaty of Tudmir, 713 CE.
fugitives: people running from the law
dinar: Muslim coins made of gold or silver
protected person: person under the rule of the empire
conceal: hide STANFORD HISTORY EDUCATION GROUP sheg.stanford.edu Document C: Fred Donner
Fred Donner is a historian at the University of Chicago who specializes in
early Islam and early Islamic expansion. Below is an excerpt from his book
where he challenges some of the common knowledge about early Islamic
During the conquest period the granting of gifts, which had been practiced
by Muhammad, became more regularized and eventually institutionalized.
In the first place, there was established a system of stipends or direct
salary payments ('ata-') to warriors serving in the Islamic armies. . . .
Tribesmen in the Islamic armies who rebelled against the regime now did
so at the cost of losing the stipends that the regime provided. Similarly,
stipends were granted to some Persian or Aramean nobles (dihqans) who
cooperated with the Muslims in Iraq. In most cases, it appears that these
individuals were required to embrace Islam in order to receive their stipend.
Source: Excerpt from Fred Donner, The Early Islamic Conquests, 1981.
institutionalized: established as part of the government
regime: government in power
nobles: ruling class STANFORD HISTORY EDUCATION GROUP sheg.stanford.edu Graphic Organizer
Central Historical Question:
How did the early Islamic empire expand?
After examining the map on Islamic expansion make a hypothesis for the following
question: How did the early Islamic empire expand? The Islamic empire expanded the largest under the Umayyad
Caliphate similar to the expansion of the Roman empire but
twice as large because of the violent measures taken.
Document A: The Battle of the Yarmuk
1. (Sourcing) Who was al-Biladuri? Why do you think he wrote this document? al-Biladuri was a muslim historian he wanted to show the fight between the muslim
powers and there taking of syria.
2. (Close Reading) List 3 reasons why this battle was the “fiercest and bloodiest kind.”
2. hurt those of non muslim descent
the women fought
over 70,000 enemies killed 3. 3. Do you think this document is a reliable source for determining how the caliphates
expanded in the 7th and 8th centuries? Why or Why not? No because it contains bias and the numbers could be proven
Hypothesis #2: How did the early Islamic empire expand? See 1 (TL;DR through the radical caliphates) STANFORD HISTORY EDUCATION GROUP sheg.stanford.edu Document B: The Treaty of Tudmir
1. (Sourcing) What type of document is this? What is its purpose? Treaty as in the name. The goal is to settle designated requirements for peace.
2. (Close Reading) According to this document, how will Muslims treat the people that they
They wont be killed, messed with, or taken prisoner . They are allowed to worship freely and had families 3. (Corroboration) How is the account of Muslim expansion in Document B similar or different
from the account in Document A? Doc A was more coarse and gore like this doc is more calm and aims to achieve
a higher peace.
4. Do you think this document is a reliable source for determining how the caliphates
expanded in the 7th and 8th centuries? Why or Why not? Yes because it is a primary source excluding bias that could come from
a secondary source.
Hypothesis #3: How did the early Islamic empire expand? See 1 through peaceful negotiations along wit military and economic
incentives. STANFORD HISTORY EDUCATION GROUP sheg.stanford.edu Document C: Fred Donner
1. (Sourcing) What type of document is this? What is its purpose? Textbook its purpose is to inform
2. (Close Reading) What was the purpose of the gift-giving that the author describes? Paid to convert and fight for Islam 3. (Corroboration): How is the account of Muslim expansion in Document C different from the
accounts in Document A and Document B? DOC A- Military
DOC B- Peaceful
DOC C- Bribe 4. Do you think this document is a reliable source for determining how the caliphates
expanded in the 7th and 8th centuries? Why or Why not? Yes because the author has proven to be credible. Hypothesis #4: How did the early Islamic empire expand? See above could hypothesis through bribe rather than treaty but I would say both STANFORD HISTORY EDUCATION GROUP sheg.stanford.edu Final Claim/Summary:
Based on the three documents you looked at, write a paragraph to answer the following
question: How did the early Islamic empire expand? Make sure to include evidence from
at least two different documents. The Islamic empire expanded in many ways through economic incentive aka
bribery, military operations, and through peaceful and diplomatic negotiation.
From DOC A we see that 70,000 enemies were killed, through the slaughter
of those who were non-muslim it made more room for those who were
muslim and provided an incentive through fear for those who were non-muslim
to convert. In DOC B we witness the terms of a treaty which through
agreed upon negotiations and the outcome of those allowed for the convergence
of non muslim in muslim communities which signifigantly diminished the chance
of an uprising which would limit the Islamic empires expansion. STANFORD HISTORY EDUCATION GROUP sheg.stanford.edu ...
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