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04February08 - 1 Proposes Law of Universal Gravitation 2...

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The Scientific Revolution Lecture Reading – Sherman, Chapter 14, pages 441-452. I. The Scientific Revolution: Astronomy Changes the World A. The Old View (Ptolemy) B. The Copernican View 1. Geocentric 2. 1543 – On The Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres 3. How are these different? C. Kepler assists Copernicus 1. Confirms that the Earth moves 2. Explains planetary movement properly 3. Ends up with no uniform motion, no crystalline spheres D. Galileo Adds to the Picture 1. Uses telescope to confirm Copernicus 2. Sees sunspots, discovers that the universe is material 3. Finds heavenly bodies never before seen 4. Controversy a) Creates uncertainty about human role in the universe b) Appears to contradict the Bible E. Newton Completes the Picture
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Unformatted text preview: 1. Proposes Law of Universal Gravitation 2. Explains Kepler’s ellipses with Galileo’s material universe 3. World seen in mechanistic terms II. Scientific Methodology Emerges A. Francis Bacon 1. Wants to reconstruct science on experimental principles 2. Go from particular events to the general rule B. René Descartes 1. Rational doubt with deduction 2. Not based on experiment, Required reasoning from first principles C. Received wisdom not good enough III. KEY IDEAS A. Mechanical Universe B. World is rational and explicable C. God the Watchmaker, not really central D. Experimental method: replicability E. Question Authority...
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