06February08

06February08 - The Encyclopdie 1. general picture of the...

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The Enlightenment, A New World of Reason and Reform Lecture Reading – Sherman, Chapter 14, pages 452-464. I. What is the Enlightenment? A. Test of reason. B. Not based on either tradition or Scripture C. Evidence and reason should form the basis of human existence D. “Scientific Thinking” applied to human sciences II. First Stage (until 1750) A. Characteristics 1. Conflict between faith and science becomes explicit 2. Writers become critics 3. The human mind is glorified 4. God becomes an abstraction B. Initial Symbol: Baron de Montesquieu 1. Noble 2. Political Philosopher 3. Criticizes absolutism in Persian Letters C. Next Symbol: Voltaire 1. Son of a notary 2. Radical philosopher 3. Critiques everything, especially the Catholic Church 4. Demands tolerance 5. English Ideals III. Decisive Period (1750-1775) A. Characteristics 1. Conflicts become public 2. Struggles between church and state 3. Censorship battles B. The Enlightenment’s Manifesto:
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Unformatted text preview: The Encyclopdie 1. general picture of the efforts of the human spirit 2. Promote rational inquiry 3. Disseminate knowledge 4. Criticize tyranny 5. Promote knowledge of philosophy and trades C. Changing Ideals: Jean-Jacques Rousseau 1. Son of a watchmaker 2. Paradoxical figure 3. Argues for a social contract 4. BUT Believes that civilization corrupts man D. Period of General Diffusion (1775-forward) 1. Conflicts expand to take into consideration race and gender 2. Those left out of the earlier phases begin to demand consideration 3. Many of the ideals of the earlier period are taken for granted IV. General Characteristics A. Pan-European B. Focused on reason, nature, liberty C. Desires to overturn the barriers that reason never erected D. Led by generalists, not spets E. Often an elitist movement...
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06February08 - The Encyclopdie 1. general picture of the...

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