Chapter 20History Study GuideHDCollective Security – what is needed to defend Britain, France, and the US’s common interests against enemy attack.Allied Powers – The Allies of World War II were the countries that opposed the Axis powers during World War II. The Allies became involved in World War II either because they had already been invaded, were directly threatened with invasion by the Axis or because they were concerned that the Axis powers would come to control the world. The anti-German coalition at the start of the war consisted of France, Poland and the United Kingdom. After 1941, the leaders of the British Empire, Russia, and the United States of America, known as the "Big Three", held leadership of the allied powers. Greater East Asian Conference – The Greater East Asia Conference was an international summit held in Tokyo, Japan in 1943, in which Japan hosted the heads of state of various component members of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. The Conference addressed few issues of any substance, but was intended from the start as a propaganda show piece, to illustrate the Empire of Japan's commitments to the Pan-Asianism ideal and to emphasize its role as the “rescuer” of Asia from Western colonialism.Erwin Rommel – Sent by Hitler, he was a brilliant general who led the 7thPranzer Division in France, to command a tank force in Libya and to rescue Italians.Tripoli – In October Montgomery launched a counterattack that forced the Germans back across the Egyptian-Libyan frontier and ended with the British capture of Tripoli, the Capital of Libya in 1943.Emperor Hirohito – Emperor of Japan, led Japan in WW2, surrendered to US after the atomic bombs were dropped in Hiroshima and Nagasaki.Joseph Stalin – After Italy, Germany, and Japan formed the axis powers, Stalin saw this as a threat to his country, the Soviet Union, and urged the West to unite against the axis. But the west distrusted Stalin and feared war, so they refused.United Nations – a permanent international organization to maintain peace after the war. They also agreed to divide Germany, as well as the city of Berlin, into 4 zones that Great Britain, France, Soviet Union, and US would occupy. U-Boats – U-boat refers to military submarines operated by Germany, particularly in WWI and WW2.Norway – Britain tried to help Norway, so in 1940, they mined Norwegian waters to block any ships trading with Germany. When they came, they tried drilling through it and proclaimed to invade Scandinavia unless they accepted the “Protection of the Reich”Leapfrog Strategy – Leapfrogging (also called "island hopping") was a military strategy employed by the Allies in the Pacific War against Japan and the Axis powers during World War
II. The idea was to bypass heavily fortified Japanese positions and instead concentrate the limited Allied resources on strategically important islands that were not well defended but capable of supporting the drive to the main islands of Japan.