Endocrinology Study Guide

Endocrinology Study Guide - Endocrinology Study Guide The...

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Endocrinology Study Guide The Endocrine System Definition of Hormone: chemical messengers synthesized in and released from an endocrine gland into the circulatory system acts on receptors on target cells located at a relatively long distance from the site of synthesis exerting a specific effect Features of the Endocrine System: 1. Glands are ductless 2. Glands have a rich blood supply 3. Hormones secreted into general circulation 4. Hormones travel to every cell in the body 5. Hormones act only where there are receptors specific from those hormones *Hormones are secreted into the general circulation Types of cell signaling: Endocrine: site of target distance from site of secretion (hormone carried through circulation) Paracrine: Target is a cell nearby the site of secretion of the messenger cell Autocrine: Target is secreted and then acts on receptors on the same cell that made the messenger Intracrine: target is an intracellular process, messenger acts without leaving the cell Ectocrine: Target is outside the organism that secreted the messenger (pheromone) Chemical messengers: Neurotransmitters: synthesized by neurons released into the synapse act at a relatively short distance from the point of release and function to communicate between neurons
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-acetylcholine, dopamine, norepinephrine Neurohormones: synthesized and released from neurosecretory cells into the general circulation -GnRH: gonadotropin releasing hormone -CRH: corticotrophin releasing hormone -TRH: thryotropin releasing hormone BOTH: something can be both; can be a neurotransmitter when it acts within the CNS, secreted from a nerve terminal and acts at the synapse and can be a neurohormone when it is secreted into the pituitary portal vessels and inhibits prolactin secretion Ectocrine Phermones: synthesized in and released from an ectocrine gland into the outside environment and act on receptors on the olfactory or gustatory system of other animals -bombykol Exocrine Secretions: Synthesized and released from exocrine glands into spaces outside the circulatory system; not primarily for communication -salivary, sweat and mammary glands are exocrine glands -the pancreas contains exocrine cells that secrete digestive juices into the intestines via ducts Parahormone: a hormone-like chemical which is generally not produced by an endocrine land, but has other characteristics of a hormone (released into circulation, acts on receptors at target sites at a distance from site of release Brain GnRH CRH TRH GHRH Pituitary LH ACTH TSH GH Peripheral Gonadal Adrenal Thyroid Somatic Tissues Hormones Hormones Hormones Growth
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List of Hormones: GnRH: Gonadotropin Releasing hormone CRH: Corticotropin Releasing hormone TRH: Thyroid Hormone releasing hormone GHRH: growth hormone releasing hormone LH: Lutenizing hormone ACTH: adrenocorticotropin hormone TSH: tyroid stimulating hormone GH: growth hormone Proteins: Properties of Proteins/Peptides: 1. Can be stored in endocrine cells and are released into circulation by exocytosis
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course BIOS 385 taught by Professor Schineder during the Spring '08 term at Lehigh University .

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Endocrinology Study Guide - Endocrinology Study Guide The...

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