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BSC2010 Ch16 Genes and Chromosomes Easy Fact Sheet

BSC2010 Ch16 Genes and Chromosomes Easy Fact Sheet - FACT...

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www.genetics.edu.au The Australasian Genetics Resource Book – © 2007 1 GENES AND CHROMOSOMES 1 F A C T S H E E T Produced by the Centre for Genetics Education. Internet: http://www.genetics.edu.au Your (Genetic) Book of Life Our genetic information, sometimes described as the ‘Book of Life’, can be thought of as being made up of two volumes. Each volume of the book is contributed to a person by one of their parents. So in your ‘Genetic Book of Life’ ( Figures 1.1 & 1.2 ): t! 0OF!WPMVNF!XBT!JOIFSJUFE!GSPN!ZPVS!.VN!BOE!POF!GSPN!ZPVS! Dad t! #PUI!WPMVNFT!DPOUBJO!34!DIBQUFST!FBDI-!BOE!UPHFUIFS!BSF! FRVJWBMFOU!UP!UIF!34!QBJST!PG!DISPNPTPNFT!QSFTFOU!JO!ZPVS! body cells that contain your genetic information t! 5IF!34!DIBQUFST!)JF/!DISPNPTPNFT*!BSF!NBEF!VQ!PG!B!WBSJBCMF! number of pages (ie. genes) t! 6PNF!PG!UIF!DIBQUFST!DPOUBJO!NBOZ!QBHFT<!PUIFST!POMZ!B!GFX/! In your cells, some chromosomes contain many thousands of HFOFT<!PUIFST!QFSIBQT!POMZ!B!GFX!UIPVTBOE!) Figure 1.2 ) t! $BSFGVM!FYBNJOBUJPO!PG!UIF!XPSET!PO!UIF!QBHFT!TIPX!UIBU!BMM! the words are made up of only three of the four possible letters ( triplets *;!"-!5-!$!'!(/!!+O!ZPVS!DFMMT-!UIFTF!MFUUFST!BSF!UIF! chemical components of DNA Important points t! +O!UIFJS!CPEZ!DFMMT-!IVNBOT!IBWF!78!DISPNPTPNFT-!NBEF!VQ!PG!34!QBJST/!5IFSF!BSF!77!DISPNPTPNFT!OVNCFSFE!2133!)DBMMFE! autosomes *!BDDPSEJOH!UP!TJ[F!GSPN!UIF!TNBMMFTU!UP!UIF!MBSHFTU!BOE!UXP!TFY!DISPNPTPNFT;!9!BOE!: t! =PNFO,T!DISPNPTPNFT!BSF!EFTDSJCFE!BT!78-99<!NFO,T!BT!78-9:! t! "!NPUIFS!QBTTFT!34!DISPNPTPNFT!UP!IFS!DIJME!UISPVHI!IFS!FHH!BOE!B!GBUIFS!QBTTFT!34!DISPNPTPNFT!UISPVHI!IJT!TQFSN t! 5IF!DISPNPTPNFT!DPOTJTU!PG!UXP!WFSZ!MPOH!UIJO!TUSBOET!PG!%>"!DIBJOT!UXJTUFE!JOUP!UIF!TIBQF!PG!B!EPVCMF!IFMJY!BOE!BSF!! located in the nucleus (the ‘control centre’) of our body cells t! 5IF!DISPNPTPNFT!BSF!MPOH!TUSBOET!PG!HFOFT! t! 6JODF!UIF!DISPNPTPNFT!DPNF!JO!QBJST-!UIF!HFOFT!BMTP!DPNF!JO!QBJST t! (FOFT!BSF!BMTP!MPDBUFE!JO!WFSZ!TNBMM!DPNQBSUNFOUT!DBMMFE! mitochondria that are randomly scattered in the cytoplasm of the cell outside the nucleus t! +O!FBDI!PG!UIF!BQQSPYJNBUF!3?-???!HFOFT!UIFSF is a piece of genetic information which guides our growth, development and health and is in the form of a chemical code, called the genetic code t! 5IF!HFOFUJD!DPEF!JO!UIF!%>"-!JT!WJSUVBMMZ!JEFOUJDBM!BDSPTT!BMM!MJWJOH!PSHBOJTNT!BOE!JT!MJLF!B!SFDJQF!CPPL!GPS!UIF!CPEZ!UP!NBLF! proteins t! 5IF!%>"!DPEF!JT!NBEF!VQ!PG!WFSZ!MPOH!DIBJOT!PG!GPVS!DIFNJDBM!AMFUUFST,;! A denine (A), G uanine (G), T IZNJOF!)5*!BOE! C ZUPTJOF!)$*! o! +O!UIF!%>"!JOGPSNBUJPO-!FBDI!AXPSE,!JT!B!DPNCJOBUJPO!PG!UISFF!PG!UIFTF!GPVS!DIFNJDBM!AMFUUFST,!"-!(-!$!BOE!5! o! &BDI!UISFF1MFUUFS!XPSE!) triplet ) tells the cell to produce a particular amino acid that form proteins o! 5IF!TFRVFODF!PG!UISFF1MFUUFS!XPSET!JO!UIF!HFOF!FOBCMFT!UIF!DFMMT!UP!BTTFNCMF!UIF!BNJOP!BDJET!JO!UIF!DPSSFDU!PSEFS!UP!NBLF!
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