BSC2010 Ch16 Genes and Chromosomes Easy Fact Sheet

Figure 17 shows a drawing of one of these autosomes

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Unformatted text preview: somes. Figure 1.7 shows a drawing of one of these autosomes (chromosome number 7), illustrating its characteristic banding pattern and the centromere. sex chromosomes Women have Egg from the mother containing 23 chromosomes Sperm from the father containing 23 chromosomes Fertilised egg containing 46 chromosomes from which all body cells arise their egg cells Men have in their sperm cells Centromere Figure 1.5: At conception the sperm and egg combine As we age and grow, our cells are continually dividing to form new cells. During this division process, each of the long thin Figure 1.7: The chromosome 7 pair showing the banding pattern using a microscope (Figure 1.6). Our genes tightly. If we imagine it stretched out, it would look like beads on a string (Figure 1.3). gene is a piece of genetic information Since the chromosomes come in pairs, there are two copies of the Figure 1.6: Normal chromosome picture (karyotype) from a male 46,XY (SEALS Genetics Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick) chromosome www.genetics.edu.au The Australasian Genetics Resource Book – © 2007 3 FACT GENES AND CHROMOSOMES SHEET 1 chromosome chromosome genes ‘active’ in their cells, in women one of the TGA development of ‘maleness’ only CTG ACT Figure 1.8: The information in the genes The number of human genes A T A T G C A A GC T A A GC T T A C G G T C chromosome pairs found in the nucleus or on long strands of DNA located in the mitochondria. Each of these genes make up the human genome. Information about the location and the sequence of ‘letters’ in A Sugar Nitrogeous Phosphate base Backbone Base pair information was largely collected by the work done as part of the Adenine Although the project’s completion was celebrated in April Thymine Guanine Cytosine Figure 1.9: The DNA helix our genome is still unknown. ‘coding DNA’ non-coding DNA’. It was originally referred to as ‘junk DNA’ as it appeared that this DNA did not contain the information for gene products that the cells use and produce. ou...
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