BSC2010 Ch16 Genes and Chromosomes Easy Fact Sheet

Information in volume 2 came from your dad genes each

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Unformatted text preview: e from your Mum. Information in volume 2 came from your Dad. Genes Each chapter has many pages Chapter one A, G, C, T Each volume has 23 chapters 23 pairs of chromosomes. Each chromosome is like a chapter from one of the volumes of the book Figure 1.1: Your Genetic Book of Life – part 1 Each chromosome has many genes Chapter one A, G, C, T Each gene gives a specific message to the cells Each page contains specific information Figure 1.2: Your Genetic Book of Life – part 2 coiled up like a ball of string as shown in Figure 1.3. DNA is one long string of genes and is not arranged as chromosomes nucleus (or control centre) of our body cells (Figure 1.4). An red blood cells, which have no nucleus and so don’t have any chromosomes. Another place in the cell where DNA is found is in the cell in very small compartments called mitochondria that are found randomly scattered in the cytoplasm outside the nucleus. giving rise to the theory that the mitochondria originated from bacteria that invaded a human cell long ago in evolution. Further information on mitochondria can be found in Genetics All of the DNA in the human cell (in the nucleus and the mitochondria) makes up the human genome. Mitochondria Genetic material (DNA) Nucleus Cell membrane Chromosomes Figure 1.3. Chromosomes are like strings of genes 2 The Australasian Genetics Resource Book – © 2007 Cytoplasm Genes Figure 1.4: Diagram of a human cell FACT GENES GENES AND CHROMOSOMES SHEET 1 Our chromosomes body cells. through our father’s sperm In the laboratory, the chromosomes are coloured (stained) with special dyes to produce distinctive banding patterns (Figure 1.6). size constriction, called the centromere (Figure 1.5) long arm and a short arm egg to divide and grow and for development to occur which we arise as the sperm contributes only a very small number of mitochondria to the fertilised egg mitochondria largely comes from the mother only, while the genetic information in the nucleus comes from both mother and father numbered paired chromosomes are called auto...
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