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from your Mum.
Information in volume 2 came
from your Dad. Genes Each chapter
has many pages Chapter one
A, G, C, T Each volume has 23 chapters 23 pairs of chromosomes. Each
chromosome is like a chapter from one
of the volumes of the book Figure 1.1: Your Genetic Book of Life – part 1 Each chromosome
has many genes Chapter one
A, G, C, T Each gene gives a
speciﬁc message to
the cells Each page contains
speciﬁc information Figure 1.2: Your Genetic Book of Life – part 2 coiled up like a ball of string as shown in Figure 1.3. DNA is one long string of genes and is not arranged as
chromosomes nucleus (or control centre) of our body cells (Figure 1.4). An
red blood cells, which have no nucleus and so
don’t have any chromosomes.
Another place in the cell where DNA is found is in the cell
in very small compartments called mitochondria that are found
randomly scattered in the cytoplasm outside the nucleus. giving rise to the theory that the mitochondria originated from
bacteria that invaded a human cell long ago in evolution.
Further information on mitochondria can be found in Genetics
All of the DNA in the human cell (in the nucleus and the
mitochondria) makes up the human genome. Mitochondria Genetic material
Chromosomes Figure 1.3. Chromosomes are like strings of genes
2 The Australasian Genetics Resource Book – © 2007 Cytoplasm Genes Figure 1.4: Diagram of a human cell
www.genetics.edu.au FACT GENES
GENES AND CHROMOSOMES SHEET 1 Our chromosomes
through our father’s sperm In the laboratory, the chromosomes are coloured (stained)
with special dyes to produce distinctive banding patterns (Figure
constriction, called the centromere (Figure 1.5) long arm and a short arm egg to divide and grow and for development to occur
which we arise as the sperm contributes only a very small
number of mitochondria to the fertilised egg
mitochondria largely comes from the mother only, while the
genetic information in the nucleus comes from both mother
and father numbered paired chromosomes are called auto...
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