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Unformatted text preview: r bodies to do will still take many years. Our genes have an important role in our cells
a piece of the genetic material that does one particular job. important role to play information necessary for our bodies to grow and work. Our genes
also contain the information for how we look: the colour of our
is in the form of a chemical (DNA) code (the genetic code) (see building blocks (nucleotide bases): Adenine (A) and Guanine
(G), and T
C (Figures 1.8 &
1.9) regulating which genes are ‘switched on’ and which are
‘switched off’ in each cell
investigations and determining biological relationships (see Genes contain recipes for the body to make proteins - the Book of
Life is like a recipe book for our bodies building blocks (amino acids) called polypeptides, fold into more
function or role in cells. DNA make up the human genome
with coding for that protein instructions to the cells by these chemically coded ‘messages’ to message (Figure 1.8).
4 The Australasian Genetics Resource Book – © 2007 word (triplet) tells the cell to produce a particular amino acid, or
to start or stop reading the words.
cells to assemble the amino acids in the correct order to make
up the protein or polypeptide www.genetics.edu.au FACT GENES AND CHROMOSOMES SHEET 1 Changes to the genetic code across all living organisms
cell needs to make a particular protein, the DNA making up
the gene unwinds and the message is ‘translated’ into a chain
of amino acids
of amino acids folds itself up into a distinctive shape that
depends upon its sequence, and is now known as a ‘protein’
Some of the proteins form building blocks for structures within the
cells such as the protein called keratin
others are called enzymes which help carry out chemical reactions,
such as digesting food. Others form communication networks
within and between cells. include a variation in the sequence of letters in the message or
a deletion or insertion of either individual letters or one or more
whole words. Even a deletion of the whole g...
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