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Nutrition Exam Review 3 - Nutrition Exam#3 Review Guide...

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Nutrition Exam #3 Review Guide LIPIDS: organic molecules that dissolve easily in organic solvents but not water hydrophobic: “fearing water”; lipids fit this bill Lipophilic: fat loving Categories of Lipids Triglycerides (very hydrophobic) o Major lipid found in most fat cells. Found in most foods. o Made of a glycerol “backbone” and 3 “fatty acids” Phospholipids (both hydrophobic (FA) and hydrophilic(glycerol and phosphate)) o Important for cell membranes o 2% of dietary lipids o Glycerol + 2 FAs Sterols o Important for cell membranes and synthesis of sex hormones o Small component of food o Hydrocarbon with multiple ring structures Fatty Acids: Fatty acids make of chains of carbon atoms (surrounded by H) with an acid group at one end and a methyl group at the other Fatty acids differ from each other depending on: -Chain length ..shorter FA more liquid, longer FA more solid -Number of “double bonds” Saturated= 0 dbl bonds More solid, stack well. Monounsaturated= 1 dbl bond Thick liquids Polyunsaturated= >1 dbl bond Liquids (don’t stack well) …positions of bonds are counted from the omega (methyl) end of FA… Physiologic Functions of Fatty Acids Energy Source (60% of REE requirements) Insulation and protection
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Essential Fatty Acids: Linoleic Acid – promotes blood clotting and inflammation Linolenic Acid – discourage clotting, reduce inflammation, dec. risk for heart dis. Trans fatty acids -Found in foods with partially hydronated oils -Hydrogens on differed sides of the double bond -Causes FA to straighten -Greatly increases shelf life of goods FAT DIGESTION Mouth: Lingual lipase: takes FA off glycerol backbone Stomach: Gastric Lipase: again, removes FA Small Intestine: Cholecystokinin
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