Guided Reading AMSCO chapter 6_0.pdf - Name Class Period...

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Unformatted text preview: Name:_______________________________________ Class Period:____ Due Date:___/____/____ Guided Reading & Analysis: The Constitution and The New Republic, 1787 - 1800 Chapter 6- The Constitution and New Republic, pp 103-129 Reading Assignment: Ch. 6 AMSCO; If you do not have the AMSCO text, use chapter s 9 & 10 of American Pageant and/or online resources such as the website, podcast, crash course video, chapter outlines, Hippocampus, etc. Purpose: This guide is not only a place to record notes as you read, but also to provide a place and structure for reflections and analysis usingARE your noggin skills) with new knowledge gained from the THESE MY(thinking COMPLEX DETAILED reading. This guide, if completed in its entirety BOP (Beginning of Period) by the due date, IN MY can be used on theNOTES< corresponding BU quiz LLETPOINTS as well as earn up to 10ARE bonus points. In addition, completed guides provide the student with the ability to correct a quiz for ½ points back! The benefits of such NOTEBOOK activities, however, go far beyond quiz help and bonus points. Mastery of the course and AP exam await all who choose to process the information as they read/receive. This is an optional assignment. So… young Jedi… what is your choice? Do? Or do not? There is no try. Directions: 1. 2. 3. 4. Pre-Read: Read the prompts/questions within this guide before you read the chapter. (Image captured from docstoc.com) Skim: Flip through the chapter and note titles and subtitles. Look at images and read captions. Get a feel for the content you are about to read. Read/Analyze: Read the chapter. If you have your own copy of AMSCO, Highlight key events and people as you read. Remember, the goal is not to “fish” for a specific answer(s) to reading guide questions, but to consider questions in order to critically understand what you read! Write Write (do not type) your notes and analysis in the spaces provided. Complete it in INK! Key Concepts FOR PERIOD 3: British imperial attempts to reassert control over its colonies and the colonial reaction to these attempts produced a new American republic, along with struggles over the new nation’s social, political, and economic identity. Key Concept 3.1: Britain’s victory over France in the imperial struggle for North America led to new conflicts among the British government, the North American colonists, and American Indians, culminating in the creation of a new nation, the United States. Key Concept 3.2: In the late 18th century, new experiments with democratic ideas and republican forms of government, as well as other new religious, economic, and cultural ideas, challenged traditional imperial systems across the Atlantic World. Key Concept 3.3: Migration within North America, cooperative interaction, and competition for resources raised questions about boundaries and policies, intensified conflicts among peoples and nations, and led to contests over the creation of a multiethnic, multiracial national identity. Section 1: HIPP+ Source: Articles of Confederation : March 1, 1781, National Archives, Public Domain VII. When land forces are raised by any State for the common defense, all officers of or under the rank of colonel, shall be appointed by the legislature of each State respectively, by whom such forces shall be raised, or in such manner as such State shall direct, and all vacancies shall be filled up by the State which first made the appointment. VIII. All charges of war, and all other expenses that shall be incurred for the common defense or general welfare, and allowed by the United States in Congress assembled, shall be defrayed out of a common treasury, which shall be supplied by the several States in proportion to the value of all land within each State, granted or surveyed for any person, as such land and the buildings and improvements thereon shall be estimated according to such mode as the United States in Congress assembled, shall from time to time direct and appoint. The taxes for paying that proportion shall be laid and levied by the authority and direction of the legislatures of the several States within the time agreed upon by the United States in Congress assembled. Historical Context: Choose 1 of the following: Intended Audience: Americans, Colonists Author’s Purpose: to inform and empower Author’s Point of View: Americans, Colonists +Other Context (Similar in Kind, In a Different Time) (Image captured from arizonapatriot.com) Section 2 Guided Reading, pp 103-119 As you read the chapter, jot down your notes in the middle column. Consider your notes to be elaborations on the Objectives and Main Ideas presented in the left column. When you finish the section, analyze what you read by answering the question in the right hand column. 1. The United States Under the Articles pp 103-104 THESE ARE MY COMPLEX DETAILED NOTES< BU LLETPOINTS ARE IN MY Key Concepts & Main Ideas NOTEBOOK Notes After experiencing the limitations of the Articles of Confederation, American political leaders wrote a new Constitution based on the principles of federalism and separation of powers, crafted a Bill of Rights, and continued their debates about the proper balance between liberty and order. Difficulties over trade, finances, and interstate and foreign relations, as well as internal unrest, led to calls for significant revisions to the Articles of Confederation and a stronger central government. Analysis Benjamin Franklin quote and intro paragraph… not the best. The opinions, I have had of its errors I sacrifice to the public good." Ben Franklin the oldest List three motivations of those organizing and attending the Annapolis Convention. In Sept. 1787, Franklin, Washington, and others signed the constitution, their country was in trouble. 1. "Thus I consent, sir, to this constitution, because I expect no better, and because I am not sure that it is delegate at convention in Philly, attempted to overcome skepticism of other delegates about the document. The United States Under the Articles, 1781-1787… to revise the Articles of Confederation Four years after the signing of the Treaty of Paris 1783 and the meeting of the Constitutional Convention in Philly. that time the government operated under the Articles of Confederation, which consisted of one house Congress, no separate 2. executive and no separate judiciary. Country faced several problems. To review what could be done about the critical problems in the country Foreign Problems… Relations between U.S. and major powers of Europe were troubled from the start. States failed to adhere Treaty of Paris and pay off debts. U.S. government was too weak to stop Britain from maintaining military outposts on western frontier and restricting trade. 3. to draft a new document to eventually replace the AOC Economic Weaknesses and Interstate Quarrels… Reduced foreign trade and limited credit because states had not fully repaid war debts contributed to widespread economic depression,13 states treated one another with suspicion and competed for economic advantages. They placed tariffs (taxes) and restrictions for goods exported outside of state lines \ The Annapolis Convention… hat could be done abut the country's inability to overcome critical problems. George What was the conclusion reached at the Annapolis Convention? another convention must be held to revise the Articles of Confederation Washington hosted the conference only 5 states sent delegates. After discussing ways to improve relations among states, James Madison and Alexander Hamilton persuaded others that another convention should be held at Philly for revision of the Articles. Are you using ink? Remember… no pencil! 2. Drafting the Constitution at Philadelphia, pp 104-106 Key Concepts & Main Ideas Delegates from the states worked through a series of compromises to form a Constitution for a new national government, while providing limits on federal power. Notes Analysis Drafting the Constitution at Philadelphia… Why did James Madison and Alexander Hamilton want to draft an entirely new document rather than just amending the Articles of Confederation? congress consented to give its approval to the meeting. It called upon all 13 states to send delegates to Philly "for the sole and express purpose of revising the Articles of Confederation" Only Rhode Island refused because they did not trust the other states. The Delegates… 1. To implement checks and balances 2. for a stronger federal government - all were white males and most had college education - They were far wealthier than other americans - A number of them were lawyers and many helped write their state constitution - Had a common goal of writing to strengthen young nation 3. to be able to tax through the government Key Issues… Opened with delegates disagreeing on purpose of convention. Nationalists (Madison and Hamilton) wanted a new document and Nationalists took control of the Convention. Americans distrusted the government and feared officials would abuse power. Therefore, Madison and others wanted the new constitution to be based on system of checks and balances so each branch had limited power. Continued on next page… Why did Rhode Island refuse to participate? because they didn't trust the other states Delegates from the states worked through a series of compromises to form a Constitution for a new national government, while providing limits on federal power. Representation… Roger Sherman created the Connecticut Plan or Great Compromise and it provided for a two house congress. SenateL equal representation. House of Representatives: based Explain the role of compromise at the Convention in Philadelphia. on population. The compromise provided a solution for one of the most Slavery…. divisive subjects discussed at the convention that all states could agree on. Delegates guaranteed that slaves could be imported for 20 more years until 1808. Then Congress could vote to abolish practice after that. Northern states wanted central government to regulate commerce Trade… and trade and South was afraid that an export tax would be placed on crops like tobacco and rice. Commercial compromise allowed congress to regulate interstate and foreign commerce, including tariffs on foreign imports and prohibited placing a tax on exports. The Presidency… The delegates debated over the president's term of oice for life. The delegates limited the president's term to four years, delegates assign each state a number of elects to vote for Why did the framers decide only 9 of 13 states would need to ratify the Constitution, rather than 13 of 13 needed for the Articles of Confederation? president to avoid mobs by the public. This is called the electoral college system Because they expected some opposition to the document. Ratification… Philly convention approved a draft of the constitution to submit to the states for ratification. Anticipating opposites to the document, the Framers specified that a favorable vote of only 9 out of 13 required for ratification. Each State held popularly elected convention to debate and vote on proposed constitution 3. Federalists and Anti-Federalists, pp 106-107 Key Concepts & Main Ideas Notes Analysis Delegates from the states worked through a series of compromises to form a Constitution for a new national government, while providing limits on federal power. Federalists and Anti-Federalists… What was the most significant argument of the AntiFederalists? Ratification was fiercely debated for almost a year (Sept. 1787-June 1788) Supporters: Federalists and Opponents: Anti-Federalists. Federalists were most common along That the Constitution doesn't protect individual rights. Atlantic Ocean and big cities. Anti-Federalists were smaller cities and farms The Federalists Papers… 85 essays were later published into a book and presented cogent reasons for believing in practicality of each major provision. Outcome… How did George Clinton respond differently than Benjamin Franklin to the proposition that the new federal government have a strong executive branch? John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, James Madison Federalists won early victories in state conventions promising to add bill of rights, they successfully address Anti-Federalists' most telling objection Debating the Constitution (comparing Federalists and Anti-Federalists Chart) Leaders… Federalists: George Washington, Ben Franklin, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton Anti-Federalists: VA(George Mason, Patrick Henry) Arguments… Federalists: stronger central government to maintain order and preserve the union. Anti-Federalists: stronger government destroy the work of Revolution, Look up (Google) and List the writers of the Federalist Papers. 1. 2. 3. limit democracy, and restrict state rights. Strategy.. Advantages… Federalists: emphasized weakness of the Articles, showed their List the writers of the Anti-Federalist Responses. Anti-Federalists: Argued that constitution contained no protection of 1. Samuel Adams, monarch had. 2. Richard Henry Lee, 3. Melancton Smith, 4. Robert Yates opponents as merely negative opponent with no solution. individual rights, gave central government more power than the British Federalists: strong leaders; well organized Anti-Federalists: appealed to popular distrust of government based on colonial experiences. Disadvantages… Federalists: constitution was new, untried, as originally written, lacked bill of rights. Anti-federalists: poorly organized, slow to respond to Federalists challenges. Continue on next page… Delegates from the states worked through a series of compromises to form a Constitution for a new national government, while providing limits on federal power. Thomas Jefferson was not at the Convention. He was serving as minister to France and was abroad. He called the Convention “An Assembly of Demigods.” Does this indicate a tendency toward the Federalist or Anti-Federalist side of the Constitutional debate? Virginia… was most populous of the 13 states. Anti-Federalists rallied behind two strong leaders George Mason and Patrick Henry, who viewed the Constitution and a strong central government as threats to American's hard earned liberty This indicates a tendency towards the Anti-Federalist side, because by labeling Final States… the Framers "demigods", he was implying that they had too much power. reversed their earlier rejections and thus became the last two states to ratify the constitution as the new "supreme law of the land" 4. Adding the Bill of Rights, pp 108-109 Key Concepts & Main Ideas Notes Analysis Calls during the Adding the Bill of Rights… ratification Anti-Federalists argued that it did, while Federalists argued it was unnecessary. process for greater Arguments for a Bill of Rights… guarantees of Federalists argued that Americans had fo ught the rights resulted in Revolutionary war to escape a tyrannical gov in Britain. Only a the addition of a bill of rights could Americans be protected against themselves. Bill of Rights shortly after the Arguments Against a Bill of Rights… Furthermore people should assume that all rights were protected rather than create a limited list that might allow people to assert Constitution was adopted. that the unlisted rights could be violated. But in order for constitution to be added, federalists promised bill of rights. How does the Bill of Rights differ today than their original intent in 1791? The tenth amendment was the most important because it ensured that the states had power, not just the federal government. Which Amendment was the most important to the Anti-Federalists? Explain why. The First Ten Amendments The first amendment it guaranteed them the ability to the first congress elected acted quickly to adopt a number of amendments listing people's right still voice their opinions under a Federalist government. In today's society, the right to bear arms (second congress shall make no law respecting an established religion, or prohibiting the amendment) is a very controversial topic. free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press, o the right First Amendment… of people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances Second Amendment… A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed. Third Amendment… No soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without consent of the Owner nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law. Which Amendment is the most important to you? Explain why. i think the most important to me would be my first amendement because of the freedom and to be able to think believe what you want Fourth Amendment… The right of the people to be secure in their persons, house, papers, and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched and the persons or things to be seized. No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except Fifth Amendment… in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger, nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself; nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation. Sixth Amendment… In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defense. Seventh Amendment… In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law. Eighth Amendment… T H ES E ARE C O M P L E X N OT ES Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. Ninth Amendment… MY BULLETPOINTS ARE IN MY NOTEBOOK The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people Tenth Amendment… The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people. Which Amendment do you think is at the highest risk of being removed? Explain why. i think the right to bear an arm because of how people use them for negative things which have caused many deaths 5. Washington’s Presidency pp 109-113 Key Concepts & Main Ideas In response to domestic and international tensions, the new United States debated and formulated foreign policy initiatives and asserted an international presence. The continued presence of European powers in North America challenged the United States to find ways to safeguard its borders, maintain neutral trading rights, and promote its economic interests. The French Revolution’s spread throughout Europe and beyond helped fuel Americans’ debate not only about the nature of the United States’ domestic order, but also about its proper role in the world. Notes Analysis Washington’s Presidency… Summarize Thomas Jefferson’s response to each of the following parts of Alexander Hamilton’s financial plan. members of the first congress under consti...
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