Guided Reading AMSCO chapter 8_0.pdf - Name Class Period...

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Unformatted text preview: Name:_______________________________________ Class Period:____ Due Date:___/____/____ Guided Reading & Analysis: Nationalism and Economic Development, 1816-1848 Chapter 8- Nationalism and Economic Development, pp 150-166 Reading Assignment: Ch. 8 AMSCO; If you do not have the AMSCO text, use chapters 12 & 14 of American Pageant and/or online resources such as the website, podcast, crash course video, chapter outlines, Hippocampus, etc. It is emphatically the Province and Duty of the Judicial Department to Say what the Law is. Purpose: This guide is not only a place to record notes as you read, but also to provide a place and structure for reflections and analysis using your noggin (thinking skills) with new knowledge gained from the reading. This guide, if completed in its entirety BOP (Beginning of Period) by the due date, can be used on the corresponding quiz as well as earn up to 10 bonus points. In addition, completed guides provide the student with the ability to correct a quiz for ½ points back! The benefits of such activities, however, go far beyond quiz help and bonus points. Mastery of the course and AP exam await all who choose to process the information as they read/receive. This is an optional assignment. So… young Jedi… what is your choice? Do? Or do not? There is no try. Directions: 1. 2. 3. 4. (Image captured from ushistory.org) Pre-Read: Read the prompts/questions within this guide before you read the chapter. Skim: Flip through the chapter and note titles and subtitles. Look at images and read captions. Get a feel for the content you are about to read. Read/Analyze: Read the chapter. If you have your own copy of AMSCO, Highlight key events and people as you read. Remember, the goal is not to “fish” for a specific answer(s) to reading guide questions, but to consider questions in order to critically understand what you read! Write Write (do not type) your notes and analysis in the spaces provided. Complete it in INK! Key Concepts FOR PERIOD 4: Main Idea: The new republic struggled to define and extend democratic ideals in the face of rapid economic, territorial, and demographic changes. Key Concept 4.1: The United States developed the world’s first modern mass democracy and celebrated a new national culture, while Americans sought to define the nation’s democratic ideals and to reform its institutions to match them. Key Concept 4.2: Developments in technology, agriculture, and commerce precipitated profound changes in U.S. settlement patterns, regional identities, gender and family relations, political power, and distribution of consumer goods. Key Concept 4.3: U.S. interest in increasing foreign trade, expanding its national borders, and isolating itself from European conflicts shaped the nation’s foreign policy and spurred government and private initiatives. Section 1: The era begins with the end of the War of 1812 (1815) & the election of James Monroe (1816) Remember the most significant thing to know about a war is the cause and effect… THE WAR OF 1812 (1812-1814) A. Causes 1. Impressment of American sailors 2. Problems with Indians in the Ohio River Valley 3. England continued to maintain forts on frontier 4. Agricultural depression 5. War Hawks (Calhoun and Clay) wanted to expand to Canada and were anti-British Read the quote from Hezekiah Niles on page 150. B. Results 1. The status quo was maintained in the Treaty of Ghent (1815) 2. Increased nationalism 3. Increased manufacturing 4. Freedom of the seas restored 5. Andrew Jackson and William Henry Harrison became war heros Based on this quote, what is a defining characteristic of the Era of Good Feelings? Section 2 Guided Reading, pp 150-166 As you read the chapter, jot down your notes in the middle column. Consider your notes to be elaborations on the Objectives and Main Ideas presented in the left column. When you finish the section, analyze what you read by answering the question in the right hand column. 1. The Era of Good Feelings pp 155-153 Key Concepts & Main Ideas While Americans celebrated their nation’s progress toward a unified new national culture that blended Old World forms with New World ideas, various groups of the nation’s inhabitants developed distinctive cultures of their own. A new national culture emerged, with various Americans creating art, architecture, and literature that combined European forms with local and regional cultural sensibilities. Regional economic specialization, especially the demands of cultivating southern cotton, shaped settlement patterns and the national and international economy Despite some governmental and private efforts to create a unified national economy, most notably the American System, the shift to market production linked the North and the Midwest more closely than either was linked to the South. Notes Analysis The Era of Good Feelings… To what extent was this era “good?” - the period's nickname suggests the Monroe years were marked by a spirit of nationalism, optimism, and good will This era was good, since people - in some ways they were but it didn't last very long generally felt optimistic and patriotic, - one party, the federalists, faded into oblivion and Monroe's party, the democratic-Republicans, adopted some of their policies and dominated politics - this perception of unity and harmony, however, can be misleading and oversimplified James Monroe… As a young man, James Monroe had fought in the revolutionary war and suffered through the Valley Forge winter - He became prominent in Virginia politics and had served as Jefferson's minister to Great Britain and as Madison's secretary of state - he continued the Virginia dynasty: of the 1st 5 presidents, 4 were from Virginia - the other, John Adams, was from Massachusetts James Monroe was the last of the Virginia Dynasty. Who else was a member of this group? It shows the patriotic themes many of the art and literature had, painting Washington in a wholesome, heroic fashion. - in the election of 1816, Monroe defeated the federalist, Rufus King, overwhelmingly- 183 electoral votes to 34 - by 1820, the federalist party had practically vanished and Monroe received every electoral vote except one. - with no organized political opposition, Monroe represented the growing nationalism of the american people - under monroe, the country acquired Florida, agreed on the Missouri Compromise, and adopted the Monroe doctrine Cultural Nationalism… the popular votes for james monroe were cast by a younger generation of americans whose concerns differed from those of the nation's founders - the young were excited about the prospects of the new nation expanding westward and had little interest in european politics now that the Napoleonic wars (as well as the war of 1812) were in the past Explain how Parson Mason Weems’ fictional story of a young George Washington chopping down a cherry tree and then not being able to tell his father a lie when confronted about it illustrates a cultural trend of the time. - as fervent nationalists, they believed their young country was entering an era of unlimited prosperity Economic Nationalism… parallel with cultural nationalism was a political movement to support the growth of the nation's economy - subsidizing internal improvements (the building of roads and canals) was one aspect of the movement - protecting budding US industries from european competition was a 2nd aspect Tariff of 1816… How did the tariff of 1816 differ from the tariff in Hamilton’s Plan during the early 1790s? before the war of 1812, congress had levied low tariffs on imports as a method for raising go revenue - then, during the war, manufacturers erected many factories to supply goods that previously had been imported from Britain These tariffs were to protect the U.S from foreign competition. Hamilton's tariff were to collect revenue. - Now in peacetime, these American manufacturers feared that British goods would be dumped on American markets and take away much of their business - congress raised tariffs for the express purpose of protecting US manufacturers from competition Henry Clays American System… - Henry Clay of Kentucky, a leader in the house of representatives, proposed a comprehensive method for advancing the nation's economic growth Was Henry Clay more Hamiltonian or Jeffersonian? Explain your answer. Hamiltonian, because he advocated for the power of the central government, with the national banks and tariffs. - his plan, which he called the american system , consisted of 3 parts: (1) protective tariffs, (2) a national bank and (3) internal improvements - clay argued that protective tariffs would promote american manufacturing and also raise revenue with which to build a national transportation system of federally constructed roads and canals Why did Monroe veto road and canal projects? Because he believed in a strict interpretation of the constitution, which didn't provide for roads and canal building. The Panic of 1819… the era of good feelings was fractured in 1819 by the 1st major financial panic since the constitution had been ratified - the economic disaster was largely the fault of the 2nd bank of the US, which had tightened credit in a belated effort to control inflation - many state banks closed and unemployment, bankruptcies, and imprisonment for debt increased sharply - the depression was most severe in the west, where many people were in debt because they speculated on land during the postwar euphoria How did the panic of 1819 impact American voters? They began to oppose a national bank and debtors prisons, calling for reform. Are you using ink? Remember… no pencil! …Era of Good Feelings Continued Key Concepts & Main Ideas The nation’s transformation to a more participatory democracy was accompanied by continued debates over federal power, the relationship between the federal government and the states, the authority of different branches of the federal government, and the rights and responsibilities of individual citizens. Notes Analysis Political Changes… Although the nation was united under a single political party, division emerged resulting in the eventual development of new parties. Compare the causes of these divisions to the causes of the Hamilton and Jefferson division leading to the first two party system in the 1790s. a principal reason for the rapid decline of the federalist part was its failure to adapt to the changing needs of a growing nation - having opposed the war of 1812 and presided over a secessionist convention at Hartford, the party seemed completely out of step with the nationalistic temper of the times - after its crushing defeat in the election of 1816, it ceased to be a national party and failed to nominate a presidential candidate in 1820 Changes in the Democratic-Republican Party… Hamilton and Jefferson divisions occurred because the new nation was just forming and people disagreed on the fundamental ways of doing things. Now that many of those things are - meanwhile, the democratic-republican party, as the only remaining national party, imderwemt serious internal strains as it agreed upon and more or less solved, people disagree more over policies. adjusted to changing times - Members such as John Randolph clung to the old party ideals of limited government and a strict interpretation of the constitution - most members, however, adopted what had once been federalist ideas, such as the need for maintaining of a large army and navy and support for the national bank - some members reversed their views from 1 decade to the next To what extent were these forces similar? They both occurred because of differing ideals, but they were different because they were a response to their different time. 2. Marshall’s Supreme Court and Central Government Powers pp 153-154 Key Concepts & Main Ideas Notes Marshall’s Supreme Court and Central Government Powers… Supreme Court decisions sought to assert federal power over state laws and the primacy of the judiciary in determining the meaning of the Constitution. identify the cases by writing the names in the circles - 1 federalist official continued to have major influence throughout the years of 1803 Appointment of midnight justices by John Adams rejected by Jefferson. Supreme Court decided constitutionality of Judiciary Act. Court ruled delivery of appointments not duty of court and declares Judiciary Act unconstitutional. Significance of Ruling: gave the Court the power of judicial review democratic-republican ascendancy: john marshall 1810 - he had been appointed to the supreme court in 1800 by federalist president john adams Georgia legislature canceled contract that granted land to speculators as part of bribe. S. Court ruled deal was legal and the state couldn’t nullify it even if it was gained with bribe. Significance of Ruling: established the principle that state laws are invalid when in conflict with the Constitution and was still leading the court as its chief justice Loyalist, Fairfax, had his land seized after Revolutionary War. He left land to relative following his death but Virginia seized it. Court overturned state court ruling. Jay’s Treaty and Treaty of Paris both stated loyalist land would be returned. Significance of ruling: confirmed the Supreme Court's right to overrule a state court. 1816 - his decisions consistently favored the central gov and the rights of property against the advocates of states' rights 1819 Maryland wanted to tax branch of national bank. Court ruled against state. Significance of Ruling: upheld the right of Congress to charter a national bank, thus putting into national law the doctrine of implied powers. - even when justices appointed by democratic-republican presidents formed a majority on the court, they often sided with marshall because they were persuaded that the US constitution had created a federal gov with strong and flexible powers 1819 - several of Marshall's decisions became landmark rulings that defined the relationship between the central gov and the states 1821 State wanted to make Dartmouth public school; charter was from King George III for private. Court rules charter cannot be changed by state. Significance of Ruling: by forbidding the state legislature to alter the college charter, established the principle that charters were contracts which could not be impaired. The state had tried and imprisoned people for illegally selling lottery tickets. Court ruled the state had the right to enforce the law which had not conflicted with the Constitution. Significance of Ruling: State courts must submit to federal jurisdiction and the federal court has the right to judicial review of state supreme court decisions - the first of these cases, marbury v. madison (1803), established the principle of judicial review 1824 - it was described in chapter 7 Explain why these decisions are “landmark.” - 6 others influential cases are described below State had given navigation monopoly which controlled waterways in NY. Court ruled monopoly unconstitutional because states cannot control trade. Significance of Ruling: gave the national government undisputed control over interstate commerce …This freed internal transportation from state restraint. (year in AMSCO is typo, it’s 1824) 3. Western Settlement and the Missouri Compromise, pp 154-157 Key Concepts & Main Ideas The American acquisition of lands in the West gave rise to a contest over the extension of slavery into the western territories as well as a series of attempts at national compromise Whites living on the frontier tended to champion expansion efforts, while resistance by American Indians led to a sequence of wars and federal efforts to control American Indian populations. The 1820 Missouri Compromise created a truce over the issue of slavery that gradually broke down as confrontations over slavery became increasingly bitter. As overcultivation depleted arable land in the Southeast, slaveholders relocated their agricultural enterprises to the new Southwest, increasing sectional tensions over the institution of slavery and sparking a broad scale debate about how to set national goals, priorities, and strategies. Notes Analysis Western Settlement and the Missouri Compromise… To what extent was westward expansion responsible for increasing sectional conflict? Explain your answer. - less than 10 years after the start if the war if 1812, the population west of the Appalachian mountains had doubled - much of the nationalistic and economic interest in the country was centered on the west, which presented both opportunities and new questions Reasons for Westward Movement… - several factors combined to stimulate rapid growth along the western frontier during the presidencies of madison and monroe Acquisition of American Indians’ Lands… Sectional conflict occurred long before westward expansion happened, but expansion did increase tensions, as both the north and south were worried they'd be outnumbered politically. large areas were open for settlement after american indians were driven from their lands by the victories of generals William Henry Harrison in the Indiana territory and andrew jackson in florida and the south Economic Pressures… the economic difficulties in the northeast from the embargo and the war caused people from this region to seek a new future across the Appalachians - in the south, tobacco planters needed new land to replace the soil exhausted by years of poor farming methods - they found good land for planting cotton in Alabama, Mississippi, and Arkansas Improved Transportation… pioneers had an easier time reaching the frontier as a result of the building of roads and canals, steamboats, and railroads Immigrants… more europeans were being attracted to america by speculators offering cheap land in the Great Lakes region and in the valleys of the Ohio, Cumberland, and Mississippi Rivers Explain how a 19th century America pioneer would view “acquiring American Indian land” as justifiable. Consider the culture clash of Americans and American-Indians. They believed it was justifiable because the American Indians had fought against them in two wars, and they saw them as an enemy. New Questions and Issues… 1. despite their rapid growth, the new states of the west had small populations relative to those of the other two sections. - to enhance their limited political influence in congress, western representatives bargained with politicians from other sections to obtain their 2. objectives Support, refute, or modify the following statement: Henry Clay was the Great Pacificator and the Great Compromiser. Henry Clay was the great compromiser for his proposal 3. - of greatest importance to the western states were: (1) "cheap money" (easy credit) from state banks rather than from the bank of the US, (2) low prices for and sold by the federal government, and (3) improved transportation of the Missouri Compromise, which pacified the North and South to keep them balanced in the house. Missouri Compromise… ever since 1791-1792, when Vermont entered the Union as a free state and Kentucky entered as a slave state, politicians in congress had attempted to preserve a sectional balance between the north and the south - keeping a balance in the house of representatives was difficult because population in the north was growing more rapidly than in the south. - by 1818 the northern states held a majority of 105 to 81 in the house - however, in the senate, votes remained divided evenly : 11 slave and 11 free states Tallmadge Amendment… 1. 2. (1) prohibiting the further introduction of slaves into Missouri and (2) requiring the children of Missouri slaves to be emancipated at the age of 25 Clay’s Proposals… 1. . admit missouri as a slave-holding state 2. 2. Admit maine as a free state 3. 3. prohibit slavery in the rest of the Louisiana territory north of the latitude 36(little circle above)30' Aftermath… - sectional feelings on the slavery issue subsided after 1820 - the missouri...
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