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Chapter 15 Outline

Chapter 15 Outline - Chapter 15 Emotions Aggression and...

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Chapter 15: Emotions Aggression, and Stress I. What Are Emotions? i. Emotions difficult to study because different behaviors can mean different emotions b. Emotions have four different aspects i. Feelings- private and subjective ii. Actions- can be defined as emotional iii. Physiological arousal- somatic or atutonomic responses. iv. Motivational programs- coordinate responses to solve adaptive problems II. Broad Theories of Emotion Emphasize Bodily Responses a. The James-Lange theory considers emotions to be the perception of bodily changes. i. Emotions come from autonomic bodily responses activated by stimuli. b. The Cannon-Bard theory emphasizes central processes i. Emotions form first in the brain, then autonomic responses ii. Autonomic responses for many emotions the same. iii. Says brain activates emotion, specifically cerebral cortex. iv. Body reacts to stimuli as well. c. Stanley Schacter proposed a cognitive interpretationof stimuli and visceral states i. Emotional labels depend on interpretations. ii. Expirement injected epinephrine to cause arousal, but then actual emotion (happiness or anger) depended on confederate. 1. interpration of arousal caused emotion. iii. Evidence against because different emotions have slightly different patterns of arousal. III. How Many Emotions De We Experience? i. Plutchik proposed 8, in pairs of opposite, but much debate. b. Facial expressions have complex functions in communication i. Anger, sadness, happiness, fear, disgust, surprise, contempt and embarrassment. ii. Cross-cultural- do not have to be learned. 1. may make rules for controlling and when expression is appropriate. iii. Emotions usually only shown on face in social situations. c. Facial expressions are mediated by muscles, cranial nerves, and the CNS pathways i. Superficial facial muscles attached only to skin and ii. Deep facial muscles, such as masseter in jaw. iii. Facial nerve (VII) innervates superficial. Trigeminal (V) innervates jaw. iv. Facial nerve nucleus in brainstem separated between upper and lower face.
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v. Right and left innervation separate. vi. Lower 2/3 innervated by opposite sides, upper 1/3 innervated by both. vii. Cultures exaggerate, minimize, counteract or camouflage their emotions.
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