Study Sheet Chapters 27-29
(living space). Hitler was a firm believer in the doctrine of
espoused by Karl Haushofer, a professor of geography at the
University of Munich. The doctrine maintained that a nation’s power depended on
the amount and kind of land it occupied.
The British were starting a policy of appeasement, based on the
belief that if European states satisfied the reasonable demands of dissatisfied
powers, the latter would be content, and stability and peace would be achieved in
Europe. British appeasement was grounded in large part on Britain’s desire to
avoid another war, but it was also fostered by British statesmen who believed that
Nazi Germany offered a powerful bulwark against Soviet communism.
by the end of 1937, Hitler was convinced that neither the
French nor the British would provide much opposition to his plans. Chamberlain,
who had become prime minister of Britain in May 1936, was a strong advocate of
appeasement and believed that the survival of the British Empire depended on an
accommodation with Germany. Chamberlain had made it known to Hitler in
November 1937 that he would not oppose changes in central Europe, provided
that they were executed peacefully.
In September 1931, Japanese soldiers had seized Manchuria, an area
of northeastern China that had natural resources Japan needed. Eventually
worldwide protests against the Japanese action led the League of Nations to
condemn the Japanese seizure, which caused Japan to withdraw from the League.
During the next several years, Japan consolidated its hold on Manchuria, which is
renamed Manchukuo, and then began to expand its control in North China. By the
mid-1930s, militant elements connected with the government and the armed
forces were effectively in control of Japanese politics.
Hitler stunned Europe with the speed and efficiency
of the German attack. Armored columns or panzer divisions supported by
airplanes broke quickly through Polish lines and encircled the overwhelmed
Polish troops. Regular infantry units then moved in to hold the newly conquered
territory. Soon after, Soviet military forces attacked eastern Poland. Within four
week, Poland had surrendered. On September 28, 1939, Germany and the Soviet
Union officially divided Poland between the them.
A panzer divisions was a strike force of about three hundred
tanks and accompanying forces and supplies.
Although Hitler’s hopes of avoiding war with the West were
dashed when France and Britain declared war on September 3, he was confident
that he could control the situation. Expecting another war of attrition and