Study Guide for final

Study Guide for final - Study Guide for PSY 201 Cumulative...

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Study Guide for PSY 201 Cumulative final History of Psychology and Research methods: What major contribution did the following individuals make to the science of psychology? Wilhelm Wundt - Father of psychology - First laboratory conducting psychological research - Developed introspection (looking inward) o Limited to what we know John B Watson - Fears are learned - Believed behaviors caused by environment (nurture) - Given a stimulus it elicits a response - Food in mouth causes drooling - Psychological needs to be the science of observable behavior o Behaviorism Analysis of observable behaviors BF Skinner - Behaviors are shaped by the consequences that follow - Developed the skinner box (operant conditioning apparatus) o Rat presses level to get a food pellet - Thought Watson’s view was too limited Sigmund Freud - Interested in unconscious - 1900 published The Interpretation of Dreams - Interpreting dreams, access the unconscious - Early childhood experiences are important - Founder of psychoanalytic o Unconscious desires, fears cause behavior o Brings contents of unconscious What were the early schools of psychological thought, functionalism and structuralism? - Functionalism o The study of the function of consciousness - Structuralism o Conscious experience broken down into elements What is the primary focus of study for the following areas of psychology? Biological approach - Links between the brain and mind - Body and brain enables emotions, memories, and sensory experiences Cognitive approach - Studying mental processes (remembering and reasoning), Knowledge Behavioral approach - Behavior are learned Psychoanalytic approach - Unconscious desires, fears cause behaviors Humanistic approach 1
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- Seek personal growth Cross-cultural approach - People indifferent culture and society Evolutionary approach - Natural selection of traits promotes the perpetuation of ones genes Social psychology - Behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures - Exploring how we view and affect one another Developmental psychology - Studying out changing abilities from womb to tomb What are the goals of psychology? - Describe - Predict - Explain - Control What is the scientific method? - What is a theory? - Idea or model about how something (behavior) works What is a hypothesis? - Prediction of what should be observed What does correlation mean? - Measures the extent in which two factors vary together, thus how well either factor predicts the other What is the experimental method? - Explore cause and effect. Manipulate one or more factors; use random assignment What is the correlational method? - Which method gives you cause and effect conclusions? - Experimental? Which method shows you the relationship between variables? -
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course PSY 201 taught by Professor Skaggs during the Winter '07 term at Oregon State.

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Study Guide for final - Study Guide for PSY 201 Cumulative...

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