Chapter 9 Notes – The High Middle Ages (1050–1450) ISS World History Forum :: Archive :: 2010-2011 Archive :: 9th Grade :: 9th Grade :: General Discussion Page 1 of 1 • Share • Actions • • • • • • • Chapter 9 Notes – The High Middle Ages (1050–1450) Mr. Fisher on Thu Apr 14, 2011 11:50 am Chapter 9: Growth of Royal Power in England and France -During middle ages, monarchs struggled to exert royal authority over nobles and churchmen. -bit by bit over the centuries, they built framework for what would become the European nation- states of today. -feudal monarchs in Europe stood at head of society, but had limited power -ruled their own domains but relied on vassals for military support nobles and chirch had as much/or more power as the monarch. They had their own courts, taxes, armies. -monarchs used various means to centralize power. -they expanded royal domain and set up system of royal justice that undermined feudal or church courts. -organized government bureaucracy, developed system of taxes, built a standing army. Strengthened ties with middle class. Strong Monarchs in England -During early middle ages, Angles, Saxons, Vikings invaded and settled in England. -1066: Anglo Saxon king Edward died without an heir -council of nobles chose Edward’s brother in law Harold to rule -but duke William of Normandy, a tough ruthless descendant of the Vikings, also claimed English throne.
-answer to rival claims lay on the battlefield. Norman Conquest -Duke William raised an army and won the backing of the pope -sailed across English Channel. -Battle of Hastings: William and his Norman Knights triumphed over Harold -Christmas Day 1066: William the conqueror assumed crown of England. -Although William’s French speaking Nobles dominated England, the country’s anglo saxon population survived. -over next 300 years, gradual blending of Norman French and Anglo-Saxon customs, languages, and traditions -William exerted firm control over new lands -Like other feudal monarchs, granted fiefs to the church and his nobility -kept a large amount of land for himself -monitored who built castles and where, required every vassal to swear first allegiance to him rather than any other lord -to learn about his kingdom, he had a complete census taken in 1086. -result was the Domesday Book which listed every castle, field, and pigpen in England. -helped William and later monarchs build an efficient system to collect taxes Unified Legal System 1154 – energetic, well educated king Henry II inherited the throne. -broadened system of royal justice -found ways to expand customs into law -developed foundations of English common law, a legal system based on custom and court rulings -unlike local feudal law, common law applied to all of England -Under Henry II, England also developed early jury system -when traveling justices visited an area, local officials collected a jury, or a group of men sworn to speak the truth.
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