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CHAPTER 21 THE AGE OF GLOBAL INTERACTION: EXPANSION AND INTERSECTION OF EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY EMPIRES Asian Imperialism in Arrest or Decline: China, Persia, and the Ottomans China - fastest growing empire in the 18 th century - engulfed Tibet in 1720, went deep into Central Asia, made territorial gains along the borders with Mongolia, Russia, Burma, and Vietnam. Continued to colonize recently absorbed lands in Manchuria and Taiwan - Scholar Ji Yun made his journey of exile to Xinjiang, he felt like he was entering “another world” in 1769 - By the end of the century, at least 200,000 Chinese immigrants had settled in Xinjiang o For merchants the opportunities in Xinjiang were so profitable that they were punished for wrongdoing by being sent back home o Settlement was concentrated beyond the mountains on arable land where market towns mushroomed - For the ruling Manchu Qing dynasty, colonization of the frontier was too important to be left to the Chinese. The Qing moved Mongol bands to weak points in the borderlands, inducing others into the empire from outside - In a ceremony in Beijing in 1771, the Qianlong emperor welcomed back into the imperial fold the Khan Uphasha of the Torghut people China had wooed this tribe for nearly 60 years. o The Torghut now abandoned Russian overlordship in the Volga valley, where they had found refuge for over a century, to return to their long-lost homeland in western Mongolia. - Chinese continued to overspill the borders of China by sea. o Became mariners in Malaya, farm laborers in Spanish-ruled Philippines o In 1732, Chinese controlled 62 percent of the shipping into Batavia from other parts of southeast Asia o Content with profit, they rarely made bids for power, a rebellion broke out in the Chinese quarter of Batavia in 1740, which was more in self defense than a seize of power.
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- At some times and in some places, overseas Chinese took power for the sake of trade o Thailand underwent a revulsion against European envoys in the late seventeenth century, Thailand underwent a revulsion against European influence o But the Thai court had a long tradition of installing foreign favorites, so from 1700, Chinese were dominant, occupying the position of royal favorite and purchasing most the other principal offices in the kingdom o But the Chinese community was too successful and the Thai became jealous of its growing profits and afraid of its growing numbers. o The new Thai kind, Borommakot, suspended the pro-Chinese policy in 1733- 1734, and the Chinese fell under suspicion of plotting got oust him o Expected Chinese vengeance did not materialize; overseas adventures remained private initiatives, in which the Chinese state was uninterested - Revenues rose about 2/3 in the 18 th century, despite substantial tax reductions, especially the abolition of the poll tax 1712. o
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