Ch16 - Ch. 16 Imperial Arenas: New Empires in the 16th and...

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Ch. 16 Imperial Arenas: New Empires in the 16 th and 17 th Century Empires form the framewok for understanding all the major long-range, long-run changes of the period. Maritime Empires: Portugal, Japan, and the Dutch - Emires were concerned with controlling places and people that produced valuable goods - Controlling trade as well as production=good - Land trade was harder than by sea. Sea-limited ports, patrolling routes limited by winds, currents, straits - 16 th and 17 th century>European/European designed ships rivaled traditional Asian Construction; borrowed Asian techonology - Much shipping across Indian Ocean/Maritime sia monsoonal seas>monsoons seasonal and ships would always return home - 16 th century>Gulf stream discovered in 1513 - Expedition of 1564-1565 found the sea routes that would take them home. - Early 17 th century Dutch sailors exploited the westerly winds that alowd them to sail ships around the globe around the 40 degrees latitude south. This linked commerce between the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans The Portuguese Example - Europeans were attracted to the commerce of the Indian Ocean and maritime Asia because the economies of the region were hugely richer and more productive than those of Europe especially in textiles, foodstuffs, drugs, and spices. - Portugals placement was highly profitable; on the Atlantic edge - Portuguese venturers opened direct trade with southern India in 1500, founded a coastal trading post at Goa in 1510, established direct access to the trading world of the islands of southeast Asia, direct contact with Thailand and China in the second decade of the sixteenth century and with Japan in 1540s - Francisco Vieira da Figeuiredo-poor Portuguese soldier who made living by trading; served in 1642 as the envoy to Cambodia of a Spanish governor of Manila, dealt with Dutch East India Company, adviser of the sultan of Makassar, the envoy of the ruler of Golconda in India, and a commercial agent for both of them. - Most European involvement in Asia were “trading post empires.” There were direct trades with Europe, chiefly ini spices, principally pepper, conducted by monopolists. Asian Examples - Toyotomi Hideyoshi-warlord who took over Japan at the end of the long era of civil war in 1585. He planned for a takeover of China, this new plan militarized Japanese society. - Invaded Korea in 1592, the Korean navy had long experience of conflict against pirates and was equipped with startling new technology: “turtle ships” with reinforced hulls and ship-killing cannon - Made it impossible for Japanese to supply and reinforce their armies in Korea. - After death of Hideyoshi in September 1598, Japanese aborted campaign on the mainland Asia - Okinawa and the Ryukyu Islands south of Japn became a Japanese dependency by
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conquest in 1609 - Northern land frontier of Japan gradually expanded to fill the whole of what we now think of as the Japanese home islands, at the expense of native Ainu people during the rest of the 17
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Ch16 - Ch. 16 Imperial Arenas: New Empires in the 16th and...

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