Bio1A+Lecture+6_Metabolism

Bio1A+Lecture+6_Metabolism - Lecture#6 Cellular metabolism...

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Lecture’#6:’Cellular’metabolism’ Reading: Chapter 8, pp. 142-149 Lecture outline: Why we need enzymes Metabolic pathways Thermodynamics Free energy IntroducGon to enzymes
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Overview:’The’Energy’of’Life’ The living cell is a miniature chemical factory where thousands of reacGons occur The cell extracts energy and applies energy to perform work Some organisms even convert energy to light, as in bioluminescence
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An’organism±s’metabolism’transforms’ma?er’and’ energy,’subject’to’the’laws’of’thermodynamics’ Metabolism’ is the totality of an organism’s chemical reacGons Metabolism is an emergent property of life that arises from interacGons between molecules within the cell
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OrganizaEon’of’the’Chemistry’of’Life’ into’Metabolic’Pathways’ A metabolic’pathway’ begins with a specifc molecule and ends with a product Each step is catalyzed by a specifc enzyme Enzyme 1 Enzyme 2 Enzyme 3 D C B A Reaction 1 Reaction 3 Reaction 2 Starting molecule Product
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Catabolic’pathways’ release energy by breaking down complex molecules into simpler compounds Cellular respiraGon, the breakdown of glucose in the presence of oxygen, is an example of a pathway of catabolism Some’metabolic’pathways’break’down’ molecules…’
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Anabolic’pathways’ consume energy to build complex molecules from simpler ones The synthesis of protein from amino acids is an example of anabolism BioenergeEcs’ is the study of how organisms manage their energy resources And’some’metabolic’pathways’create’ molecules’
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Energy’ is the capacity to cause change Energy exists in various forms, some of which can perform work: Kine±c’energy’ is energy associated with moGon Heat’(thermal’energy)’ is kineGc energy associated with random movement of atoms or molecules Poten±al’energy’ is energy that maQer possesses because of its locaGon or structure Chemical’energy’ is potenGal energy available for release in a chemical reacGon ’ ’ Energy can be converted from one form to another
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Climbing up converts the kinetic energy of muscle movement to potential energy.
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Bio1A+Lecture+6_Metabolism - Lecture#6 Cellular metabolism...

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