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Bio1A+Lecture+6_Metabolism

Bio1A+Lecture+6_Metabolism - Lecture#6 Cellular metabolism...

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Lecture #6: Cellular metabolism Reading: Chapter 8, pp. 142-­૒149 Lecture outline: Why we need enzymes Metabolic pathways Thermodynamics Free energy IntroducGon to enzymes
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Overview: The Energy of Life The living cell is a miniature chemical factory where thousands of reacGons occur The cell extracts energy and applies energy to perform work Some organisms even convert energy to light, as in bioluminescence
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An organism’s metabolism transforms ma?er and energy, subject to the laws of thermodynamics Metabolism is the totality of an organism’s chemical reacGons Metabolism is an emergent property of life that arises from interacGons between molecules within the cell
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OrganizaEon of the Chemistry of Life into Metabolic Pathways A metabolic pathway begins with a specific molecule and ends with a product Each step is catalyzed by a specific enzyme Enzyme 1 Enzyme 2 Enzyme 3 D C B A Reaction 1 Reaction 3 Reaction 2 Starting molecule Product
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Catabolic pathways release energy by breaking down complex molecules into simpler compounds Cellular respiraGon, the breakdown of glucose in the presence of oxygen, is an example of a pathway of catabolism Some metabolic pathways break down molecules…
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Anabolic pathways consume energy to build complex molecules from simpler ones The synthesis of protein from amino acids is an example of anabolism BioenergeEcs is the study of how organisms manage their energy resources And some metabolic pathways create molecules
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Energy is the capacity to cause change Energy exists in various forms, some of which can perform work: KineEc energy is energy associated with moGon Heat (thermal energy) is kineGc energy associated with random movement of atoms or molecules PotenEal energy is energy that maQer possesses because of its locaGon or structure Chemical energy is potenGal energy available for release in a chemical reacGon Energy can be converted from one form to another
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Climbing up converts the kinetic energy of muscle movement to potential energy.
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