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Unformatted text preview: SOCIO 211: Introduction to Sociology
Mrs. Andrea S. Boyles, Instructor The Sociological Perspective
Sociological perspective (Imagination) Opens a window onto unfamiliar worlds and offers a fresh look at familiar worlds. C. Wright Mills states, "it is the intersection of biography (the individual) & history (social factors that influence the individual) Science Natural : Biology, Chemistry, Botany, Physics, Zoology, etc. Social: Psychology, History, Political Science, Economics, Criminal Justice, Sociology, etc. Tradition vs. Science
Tradition: Primarily agricultural-based society Significantly changed with the Industrial Revolution Industrial Revolution The start of industry Poor working conditions The rise of cities/urbanization No longer able to answer for social upheaval Auguste Comte "Positivism" Auguste Comte Positivism The idea of applying scientific method to the social world Coined the term "Sociology" The study of society Sociological Theories/Theorists Herbert Spencer Karl Marx Emile Durkheim Max Weber (Vaber) Jane Addams W.E. B. Dubois Herbert Spencer-- "Social Darwinism" believed that societies evolved Lower levels of society were Barbarians Higher levels of society were Civilized His principle was known as "survival of the fittest"--only the strong will survive No one should intervene Karl Marx-- "Class Conflict" His theories hinged on "class conflict" Believed in two class groups: Proletariats: workers; exploited class Bourgeoise: owners; controlled the means to produce wealth Emile Durkheim "Social Integration" Social Integration The degree to which people are tied to their social group Studied/Researched suicide
The stronger social bonds--the least likely an individual is to commit suicide The weaker social bonds--the more likely an individual is to commit suicide Max Weber (Vaber) "The Protestant Ethic" Weber disagreed with Marx that economics was the central force Attributed capitalism to the protestants They looked for signs that they were in God's will The effort to make more money "the spirit of Capitalism" Religion was key in Capitalism Jane Addams--Social Reform Known for social reform She fought to gain 8 hour work days and child labor laws Co-winner of the Nobel Peace Prize Only Sociologists to ever win one W.E.B. Dubois-- Race Relations The 1st African American to earn a doctorate from Harvard University One of the first to actually engage in empirical research The Philadelphia Negro Co-founder of the NAACP Theoretical Perspectives Symbolic Interactionism Functionalism Conflict Theory Two types of Analysis Micro Macro Symbolic Interactionism Charles Cooley Herbert Mead People use symbols to develop and share their views of the world Functionalism Robert Merton Society as a whole, composed of parts Views "functions" as beneficial consequences, equilibrium Manifest functions--intended consequences Latent functions--unintended consequences Cont. of Functionalism Dysfunction Consequences that harm society Conflict Theory Society is composed of many parts competing that's competing for resources May look successful on the surface, but underneath there's a struggle for power Views everything through the lens of unequal distribution of power "inequality" Wherever there's conflict, there's inequality Levels of Analysis Macro level Large scale patterns within society Micro level Small scale patterns; ex: Feminism is the micro level of Conflict Theory. Culture
The language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors, and material objects passed from one generation to the next. Two Forms of Culture Material culture Consists of objects (art, buildings, clothing, tools) Nonmaterial culture A groups way of thinking and their patterns of behavior (beliefs, values, language, gestures) Cont. Culture Culture becomes the lens through which we perceive and evaluate what is going on around us. Cont. Culture Culture shock Disorientation associated with unfamiliar culture (material and nonmaterial) Ethnocentrism A Tendency to use our own group's way of doing things as the yardstick for judging others. Cultural Relativism Looking at how the elements of another culture fit together without judging those elements as superior/inferior to one's own So let's see...
Can you remember the last time you saw or heard something extremely different from your culture? What were your thoughts? Was your response ethnocentric or culturally relative? Symbolic Culture Something to which people attach meaning and they use to communicate with one another. Gestures Using one's body to communicate with another http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BM9Iu4OQXAw&mode= related&search= http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UmGyb5tg29g&mode=related&s = ...
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- Fall '08