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Deviance and Social Control - Deviance and Social Control...

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Unformatted text preview: Deviance and Social Control Any violation of norms Crime is a specific form of deviance. It is the violation of rules that have been written into law (official). Stigma To refer to characteristics that discredit people. Our lives are based on... Social Order A group's customary social arrangements Social Control Formal and informal means of enforcing norms; a means of enforcing social arrangements Sanctions Positive Sanctions Smiles to formal rewards for maintaining the norm Negative Sanctions Penalties for violating the norm Explaining Deviance Symbolic Interaction The Functionalist Perspective The Conflict Perspective The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective Differential Association Theory Control Theory Labeling Theory Differential Association Edward Sutherland We learn to deviate and/or conform to society's norm based on the different groups we associate with. Ex: Family, friends, neighborhoods, and/or subcultures Control Theory Developed by Walter Reckless Two control systems work against our motivations to deviate. Inner: conscious, religion, ideas of right/wrong Outer: consist of people (i.e., family, friends, police) Cont. of Control Theory The stronger our bonds are, the more effective our inner controls are (self-control). Bonds are based on: Attachments: respect for people who conform Commitments: having a stake in society, not risk Involvements: invested time/energy into activities Beliefs: the belief that certain actions are wrong Labeling Theory Focuses on the significance of labels (i.e., names, stereotypes) Labels tend to become part of our self- concept Labels may potentially set us on a path to either deviate or conform (self-fulfilling prophecy) The Functionalist Perspective Robert Merton's Strain Theory: "Mainstream social values can produce strain. People who feel this strain are likely than others to deviate paths (Henslin 2007: 149)". Deviant Paths Innovation: Accept goals; use illegitimate means to reach them Ritualism: Cling to conventional rules of conduct Retreatism: Rejects both the cultural goals and institutionalized means of achieving them Rebellion (Rebels): Convinced that society is corrupt; rejects both societal goals and institutional means of achieving them. Street Crime vs. White Collar Crime Street Crime: Robbery, burglary, drug dealing, prostitution, and other similar crimes often woven into the texture of life in urban areas. White Collar Crime: Crimes that people of respectable and high social status commit in the course of their occupations. Street Crime vs. White Collar Crime Seldom is corporate crime taken seriously, even when it results in death "At $400 billion a year (Reiman 2004), `crime in the suites cost more than `crime in the streets' (Henslin 2007: 151)." ...
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