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World History Test 1 Notes

World History Test 1 Notes - What is WORLD HISTORY-World...

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What is WORLD HISTORY? --World History explores human history starting with ancient times. --it is not JUST the facts. The CHALLENGE of history= the WHY. Answering the WHY: --Who? --When? --What? --Where? Approximately 250,000 years ago, the 1 st homo sapiens appeared. PALEOLITHIC AGE: o Means “Old Stone” age o Widespread use of carved stones o Until about 10,000 BCE o PEOPLE: Small groups of 20-60 Hunter-gatherers Tended to be migratory: followed game Rudimentary belief systems: basic culture o End of Paleolithic Era was about the same time as the end of the Ice Age. o Over approximately 10,000 years, ice would freeze and melt, causing much migration. ICE AGE: o Lasted nearly 10,000 years, until 12,000 BCE. MESOLITHIC AGE: o “Middle Stone” Age o Until about 4500 BCE o Continued improvements in stone tools, fishing. PALEOLITHIC AND MESOLITHIC: o Total dependence on hunting and gathering o Limits growth of populations: Estimated only 6-8 million people by the end of the Mesolithic Era. NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION: o “New Stone” Age o Advent of AGRICULTURE o Ability to plant and grow seeds for food. o Continued domestication of animals (ex. cows) o Became food producers o Because of ice age and big animals no longer existing, they turned to farming.
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FUNDAMENTAL CHANGES: BRONZE AGE: o Tied people to land; fixed locations o Able to support larger populations o Led to technological improvements in storage, transportation, metals. o Coincided with increase use of bronze o Rituals, festivals, days of rest, market days o Weeks are imaginary (months and nights go with changes in reality (universe)) o Beliefs usually described as animalistic NEOLITHIC CULTURE: o Constructs of time (ex. Stonehenge in England (follow well with movements in sun)) o Rituals relating to planting, harvest o Animistic religion o Patriarchal (as women’s roles changed) o Population increase (result of working people—more money, more food) o Oxen, donkeys o Women=1 st ; men inserted themselves into agriculture o Disease resulted from lager population in areas o War (fighting over resources (land/water)) FERTILE CRESCENT: from Persian Gulf to Egypt o Shaped like crescent roll o Between EUPHRATES and TIGRIS RIVER o Area with great population o 8000-4000 BCE o growth of 1 st human civilization: MESOPOTAMIA VILLAGE TO CIVILIZATION: o Surplus of economic output: more specialization with people’s skills o Formal governments: bureaucracy —leadership roles beyond clan leader. o Writing o Urban centers o Permanent, monumental architecture o Created more complex societies SUMERIANS: o c. 3500-2300 BCE o 1 st civilization in Mesopotamia= SUMERIA (time of first emerging period: 3200-2800 BCE) o 1 st stage= cotoliterate o *Great astronomists o 1 st form of human writing= CUNEIFORM, or writing on clay.
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World History Test 1 Notes - What is WORLD HISTORY-World...

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