eemb_113_lecture_4_notes - \u25cf \u25cf \u25cf \u25cf Lecture 4 Taxonomy the naming of organisms and groups of similar organisms \u25cb Why use scientific names

eemb_113_lecture_4_notes - u25cf u25cf u25cf u25cf...

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Lecture 4 Taxonomy: the naming of organisms and groups of similar organisms. Why use scientific names instead of common names? I.e., yellow butterfly What if there is more than 1 yellow butterfly out there? And what if they have different behaviors, diets, etc.? Hierarchical classification Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Biological classification Linnean paradigm - early concept of classification Immutable (unchanging) species Divinely-structured Ranked system (humans at the top) Morphological similarity (phenetics) Systema naturae, 1735 AD Evolutionary paradigm Evolutionary structured Morphological apomorphies Genetic relatedness Definitions Taxonomy: the naming of organisms and groups of similar organisms. Systematics: The practice the theory of biological classification. Discovering and describing the full diversity of life. Phylogenetics: A specific approach to systematics with three basic tenets (aka cladistics, aka Hennigian systematics, aka phylogenetic systematics) Use derived characters rather than overall similarity Reject taxonomic groups that include some but not all descendants of a common ancestral species Insist on a system that directly reflects evolutionary relationships Monophyletic: Taxonomic group containing all descendants of a common ancestor

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