Chapter 1 Test 1. When Tara saw the lush green lawn, it reminded her of just how dry the lawn had been the previous year. Among the four laws of association, this is best described as an example of the law of contrast 2. Deanna often gets lost when she drives around the city that she lives in. Tolman might say that she has a faulty cognitive map . 3. When Janelle first saw a video of the pop singer Britney Spears, she immediately thought of Paula Abdul because the two performers seemed to have a common style of performance. Among the four laws of association, this is best described as an example of the law of similarity 4. Jordan once became terribly ill while visiting Chicago. As a result, whenever he visits Chicago, he thinks of the illness he suffered at that time. Among the four laws of association, this is best described as an example of the law of contiguity 5. After struggling unsuccessfully to completely eliminate his test anxiety, Andres finally accepts the there are some aspects of himself that he can control and some that he cannot. This conclusion is similar to that of the French philosopher Descartes and his theory of mind-body dualism 6. In trying to understand her feelings for Juan, Alisha pays close attention to the sensations she feels each time she sees him. This is an example of the method of introspection . This was a favorite method of research by psychologists who adhered to the approach know as structuralism 7. Hull’s theory is a molecular type of theory, whereas Tolman’s theory is a molar type. 8. When Anastasia once visited London, it rained every day for a week. As a result, whenever she is trapped in a rainstorm, it reminds her of her trip to London. Among the four laws of association, this is best described as an example of the law of frequency 9. The law of parsimony holds that simpler explanations are usually preferable explanations 10. “My cat never gets lost. It’s like she has a blueprint in her mind of the exact layout of the entire town.” This statement fits best with Tolman’s brand of behaviorism, known as cognitive behaviorism 11. “Babies know nothing,” Kristie pronounced when her sister commented on how intelligent her new baby seemed to be. Kristie obviously believes that the mind of a newborn is a blank slate (or, in Latin, tabula rasa ), a notion that was promoted by a group of philosophers known as the British empiricists . 12. Although Roberta just sits there throughout the lecture, she can afterward repeat everything the professor said. This is an example of latent learning, which illustrates the distinction between learning and performance 13. Ava tells her friend Trish that she believes that her husband kept yawning during their anniversary dinner because he was subconsciously trying to punish her for having become pregnant. Trish tells Ava to quit being paranoid and that he was probably just tired. Conway Lloyd Morgan would have leaned toward accepting Trish’s explanation as more likely correct.