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Notes to First Midterm

Notes to First Midterm - History Notes Ancient Greece and...

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History Notes Ancient Greece and Its Political History Greece Tyranny- the rule by a single person (Gone by 500 BC) Oligarchy- power rest in the hands of a group -Usually determined by means of qualification (wealth) -Birth and education can place you in the elite Democracy- the power to rule rest in the hands of the people Keys to democracy: Freedom, Equality, and Citizenship Rule of Law & Public seats of government -Not all of Greece was a democracy, mostly just Athens Athens: Was one ‘polis’ of Greece Attica- laid on the Eastern shore in Athens (Base of naval power) Golden Age (500-330 BC) - age of democracy in Athens Polis (10 th Century BC) – A city, but more importantly a shared community -Aristotle claimed it had to be small (5-10 thousand), but Athens had 40,000 Agora: A market and a meeting place Acropolis: An elevation built for defensive purposes. Based on equality, but this did not include: women, “citizenesses” Cleisthenes – founded Democracy (began in 508 BC) This occurred when an oligarchy was founded and Hippius excluded Cleisthenes Cleisthenes then overthrew him with the people (Democracy arises) Hippius called on the help of the Sartans but this helped democracy The Athenians overthrew them and this became a testament to their cause Isonomia – An idea of Cleisthenes: mixed groups (demes) that were separated by birth The Workings of the Democracy: Citizenship was limited to freeborn males of Athenian birth Slaves, women, and foreigners were excluded The Assembly : Major decision making body that met 40 times a year Anyone could contribute but the majority made the decisions The agenda was set by the council , which was composed of 500 chosen citizens Decisions reached were reviewed by a jury Why aren’t we a direct democracy? Doesn’t have negative rights : non-interference in personal affairs Ostracism – way of getting rid of an unpopular person Too many people and too spread out US praise of Athenian democracy began in the 18 th century Criticisms 1- More educated Athenians (Aristocrats) were better speakers (orators) 2- No formal system of public education 3- Only a democracy for a select few (4,000/ 40,000) 4- Resident aliens (metics) couldn’t have citizenship 5- Women had no rule in the voting a. Apasia was Pericles’ mistress
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6- Slavery 7- No notion of negative rights 8- No equalization of property rights -Democracy is not static – always in flux -By 450 BC progress was being made n property exclusion -If you fought for the state you could have a say 451 BC: Ephialtes & Pericles attacked last remaining structure opposing democracy The Areo pagus – was an aristocratic body but became a symbolic figure -Introduction of payment in return for public service 461 BC – The Peak of Athenian Democracy Pericles – Voted into the only elected office, which was the generalship -Was rich and well born -Said that much of his power came from his rhetoric -Identified with the people Sparta -Founding Fathers of the US liked Spartan ideals more than Athenian ideals Looked to emulate political, not social system
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Notes to First Midterm - History Notes Ancient Greece and...

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