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THE GHOST DANCE AND WOUNDED KNEEA. The Sioux reservation:1. The 1868 Ft Laramie Treaty established the Sioux reservation in the southwest corner of Dakota Territory: -content/uploads/2008/12/laramie_treaty_1868.jpga. but few Indians stayed on the reservation; they argued that the treaty had not extinguished their hunting rights on lands surrounding the reservationb. this inevitably led to conflict, and warfare continued2.The 1877--Black Hills Cessiona.gold was discovered in the Black Hills in 1877, and this led the government to renege on the Treaty and take back the Black Hills b.the Sioux then had 43, 000 acres leftc.cession was a focal point of resistance—it was one reason many Sioux continued to fight3. But disappearance of the buffalo was really one of the main reasons why Plains Indians were finally compelled to go to the reservationa. 1858-1890--the number of buffalo on the Plains fell from 13 million to about 200b. this had tremendous impact on Plains life—caused hunger and increased raiding among the tribes whose livelihood depended on themc. Finally, in 1881, weariness of warfare and loss of buffalo drove Sitting Bull to surrender -bull-hunkpapa-sioux.jpgd.and the rest of the Sioux came to the rezGhost Dance and Wounded Knee Page 1
4. The rez was so large that it was governed by 4 agencies:a. Rosebud was one, but it was not important for this storyb. The three agencies that are important for our purposes had Indian leaders who were accommodators nad also had chiefs who led resistanceThe Cheyenne River Agency--the Indians there were led by Big Foot, an accommodatorThe Standing Rock Agency --agent James McLoughlin was in near-constant conflict with Sitting Bull (who arrived in 1883) and resisted much of the government’ sagendaThe Pine Ridge Agency--agent Daniel Royer tangled with Red Cloud & Spotted Tail (Royer replaced Valentine. T. McGillycuddy in 1890)--Red Cloud and Spotted Tail had appeared to be accommodators, but they covertly led resistance--moreover, the Sioux had a name for Royer: “Young Man Afraid of Indians”one historian called him: “A broken-down small politician overwhelmingly in debt [who] came as a political adventurer in search of a fortune.” 5. On the rez, the Sioux tried to preserve as much of the old ways as possiblea. hunted government cattle as if they were buffaloes when they ran out of the railroad carsb. tried to perform the Sun Dance-this was the most sacred of Sioux ceremonies-it was a time when all the clans gathered to renew ties, bury and mourn their dead, name their babies, and pierce the babies’ ears6. The government. had banned the Sun Dance on the rez as a “heathen” practice incompatible with “civilization”a. this was a major blow to the Sioux--loss of mourning ritual especially