Week 1_ Heart_Part 1.ppt - Welcome to Anatomy and...

This preview shows page 1 - 14 out of 53 pages.

Welcome to Anatomy and Physiology II Valerie Weiss, M.D., M.S.
The Cardiovascular System: THE HEART PART 1: Heart anatomy and cardiac muscle
Heart Anatomy Approximately the size of a fist Location In the mediastinum between second rib and fifth intercostal space On the superior surface of diaphragm Two-thirds to the left of the midsternal line Anterior to the vertebral column, posterior to the sternum Apex of the heart is pointing to the left hip
Point of maximal intensity (PMI) Diaphragm Sternum 2nd rib Midsternal line
Position of the Heart and Associated Blood Vessels in Thoracic Cavity Mediastinum About two-thirds of its mass is to the left of the midline
Pericardium The heart is enclosed a double-walled sac called the pericardium . This body cavity is not open to the outside and covered by an epithelial membrane called a serous membrane . (always has 2 layers---outer parietal layer and inner visceral layer) Superficial fibrous pericardium Protects, anchors, and prevents overfilling Deep two-layered serous pericardium Parietal layer lines the internal surface of the fibrous pericardium Visceral layer (AKA epicardium ) on external surface of the heart Separated by fluid-filled pericardial cavity (decreases friction )
Layers of Heart Wall Epicardium Myocardium Endocardium
Fibrous pericardium Parietal layer of serous pericardium Pericardial cavity Epicardium (visceral layer of serous pericardium) Myocardium Endocardium Pulmonary trunk Heart chamber Heart wall Pericardium Myocardium
Recap: STRUCTURE OF THE HEART The heart is a hollow, muscular, double pump Pericardium - double layer surrounding heart; fibrous portion & serous portion (parietal & visceral layers) Heart Wall: Epicardium = visceral serous layer of pericardium Myocardium - cardiac muscle tissue Endocardium - Smooth inner lining, covers valves
Myocardium Spiral bundles of cardiac muscle cells Fibrous skeleton of the heart : crisscrossing, interlacing layer of connective tissue Anchors cardiac muscle fibers Supports great vessels and valves Limits spread of action potentials to specific paths
Chambers of the Heart Four chambers Two atria (receiving chambers) Separated internally by the interatrial septum Coronary sulcus (atrioventricular groove) encircles the junction of the atria and ventricles. Atria are found above the sulcus and the ventricles below. Appendages called auricles increase atrial volume Two ventricles (discharging chambers) Separated by the interventricular septum Anterior and posterior interventricular sulci mark the position of the septum externally
Anterior view Right atrium Right coronary artery (in coronary sulcus ) Right ventricle Left coronary artery (in coronary sulcus ) Left ventricle Great cardiac vein Anterior interventricular artery (in anterior interventricular sulcus ) Apex Auricle of left atrium
Posterior surface view Aorta Left pulmonary artery Left pulmonary veins Auricle of left atrium Left atrium Great cardiac vein Posterior vein of left ventricle Left ventricle

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture