chapter 3 - PowerLecture: Chapter 3 Molecules of Life...

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PowerLecture: Chapter 3 Molecules of Life Organic Compounds Hydrogen and other elements covalently bonded to carbon Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids Carbon’s Bonding Behavior Outer shell of carbon has 4 electrons; can hold 8 Each carbon atom can form covalent bonds with up to four atoms Bonding Arrangements Carbon atoms can form chains or rings Other atoms project from the carbon backbone Functional Groups Atoms or clusters of atoms that are covalently bonded to carbon backbone Give organic compounds their different properties Examples of Functional Groups Hydroxyl group - OH Amino group - NH 3 + Carboxyl group - COOH Phosphate group - PO 3 - Sulfhydryl group - SH
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Types of Reactions Functional group transfer Electron transfer Rearrangement Condensation Cleavage Common Functional Groups in Biological Molecules Functional Groups in Hormones Estrogen and testosterone are hormones responsible for observable differences in traits between male and female wood ducks Differences in position of functional groups attached to ring structure (pg 36) Condensation Reactions Form polymers from subunits Enzymes remove -OH from one molecule, H from another, form bond between two molecules Discarded atoms can join to form water Hydrolysis A type of cleavage reaction Breaks polymers into smaller units Enzymes split molecules into two or more parts An -OH group and an H atom derived from water are attached at exposed sites Consider Methane Methane, a “lifeless” hydrocarbon, is present in vast methane hydrate deposits
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chapter 3 - PowerLecture: Chapter 3 Molecules of Life...

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