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chapter 8 - ATP Is Universal Energy Source...

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ATP Is Universal Energy Source Photosynthesizers get energy from the sun Animals get energy second- or third-hand from plants or other organisms Regardless, the energy is converted to the chemical bond energy of ATP Making ATP Plants make ATP during photosynthesis Cells of all organisms make ATP by breaking down carbohydrates, fats, and protein Main Types of Energy-Releasing Pathways Anaerobic pathways Evolved first Don’t require oxygen Start with glycolysis in cytoplasm Completed in cytoplasm Aerobic pathways Evolved later Require oxygen Start with glycolysis in cytoplasm Completed in mitochondria Glucose A simple sugar (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) Atoms held together by covalent bonds Glycolysis Occurs in Two Stages Energy-requiring steps ATP energy activates glucose and its six-carbon derivatives Energy-releasing steps The products of the first part are split into three-carbon pyruvate molecules ATP and NADH form
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The Role of Coenzymes NAD + and FAD accept electrons and hydrogen Become NADH and FADH 2
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