In AD 1961, he issued an encyclical regarding social order insisting that cooperation, not struggle is the basis of social order. He urged reconciliation in situations where there is crisis. He recommended that the rich nations should aid poorer ones so that equality may be achieved. He elevated nationals to the post of bishops and cardinals, worldwide.Despite his own conservatism and his age, he realized that the Roman Catholic Church needed tobe brought up to date and he achieved his aim in Vatican II 1962- 65, during which he died in 1963.He set out to update the Roman Catholic Church and to seek for unity in the worldwide Church, was it not Jesus' desire that all Christians be united? Profound changes in attitude were observed,the Church's edicts were now pastoral rather than dogmatic, conciliatory rather than confrontational. The authority and infallibility of the Pope was affirmed, but a new collegiality ofpower of the pope acting with the bishops in governing and teaching was accepted as the model and authority was transferred down to recognize the role of the laity in the church.