Psychology Notes 3 - Psycholinguistics Phonemes the sounds...

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Psycholinguistics Phonemes: the sounds of language (there are over 100, English uses 53); newborns can make all the sounds o McGurk Effect- when the ear hears one sound, but the eye sees a mouth form a different sound – the brain’s interpretation can be a mixture of the two sounds. o Phonetic Symbolism- the observation that the sounds of words can convey meaning Morphemes- the smallest unit of a word that has meaning Prosody- the rhythm and intonation of speech; you sing your speech; there is tone, inflections, emphasis Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis (linguistic determinism)- the theory that language influences though Development o Age and development Begin making sounds 5-8 months Start putting words together at 2 years old o 3 Bears Rule- children use basic categories to classify things before they introduce larger or smaller categories o Over regularization- when learning language, children over apply rules; the mistakes that they make show which rules thy are learning; this happens during the critical period (about age 2.5) Ways to study language o Spoonerisms- “You lissed my mecture” shows that there is preprocessing and while you may not consciously know what the end of your sentence will be, t o Aphasia Receptive Expressive Syntactic Animal language Intelligence o Definitional problems There is no good definition of intelligence, so it is difficult to say who is smarter o Physical correlations People used to think that the size of the brain was an indicator, but it isn’t. We have seen that generally, the larger the brain to body mass ratio of a species (not individual), the greater the intelligence of that species When examining Einstein’s brain, it was found that it contained more gleel cells than normal.
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The speed at which one can think does not necessarily indicate intelligence. The folds in the brain do not indicate intelligence either. o History of test development (from 1900) Intelligence tests are not great measures- they only test some aspects of intelligence and only compare one’s intelligence to others’ intelligence The original IQ test developed by Dalton involved vision and hearing (assuming that those who could see and hear better could learn more) The first problem came when the IQ test was overused when hiring or giving promotions. People were forced to take tests. Congress
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