8.1.1-2B Oxidation States.pdf - 2020/5/8 Oxidation States...

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2020/5/81Chapter8:TransitionMetals8.1ChemistryoftheTransitionMetals(PropertiesofTransitionMetals)8.1.1PhysicalProperties8.1.2OxidationStatesoftheTransition‐MetalElementsContentsOxidationStatesTransitionmetalscanformavarietyofionsbylosingoneormoreelectronsNoteForthefirstfiveelements,themaximumpossibleoxidationstateisrelatedtothelossofallthe4sand3delectronsFirst‐RowTransitionMetals– ElectronConfigurations3First‐RowTransitionMetals– ElectronConfigurations3dorbitalsbegintofillafterthe4sorbitaliscomplete,e.g.Iron(Fe)‐ [Ar]4s23d6ExceptionsChromium(Cr)‐ [Ar]4s13d5Copper‐ [Ar]4s13d10Asetoforbitalswiththesameenergyiscalleddegenerate41234
2020/5/82First‐RowTransitionMetals‐ ElectronConfigurations(ContinueFirst‐row transitionmetalionsdonothave4selectronsEnergyofthe3dorbitalsissignificantlylessthanthatofthe4sorbitalExampleConfigurationofneutraltitanium(Ti)‐ [Ar]4s23d2ConfigurationofTi3+‐ [Ar]3d15OxidationStates,MoreThanOneFigure8.4:Someoftheoxidationstatesfoundincompoundsofthetransition‐metalelements.Themorecommonoxidationstatesarerepresentedbysolidcircles,andthelesscommononesarerepresentedbyopencircles.First‐RawTransitionStateMetalsSelectedProperties,e.g.OxidationStatesIonizationEnergy(Tableonthelastpage)IncreasesgraduallyfromlefttorightacrosstheperiodThirdionizationenergyincreasesfasterthanthefirstionizationenergyProvesthatthereissignificantdeclineintheenergyofthe3dorbitalswhilegoingacrosstheperiod5678
2020/5/83PlotsoftheFirstandThirdIonizationEnergiesfortheFirst‐RowTransitionMetals9StandardReductionPotentialsHalf‐reactionofametalthatactsasareducingagentThisisthereverseoftheconventionalhalf‐reactionsThemetalwithmostpositivepotentialisthebestreducingagentMMennRelativeReducingAbilitiesoftheFirst‐RowTransitionMetalsinAqueousSolutionStandardReductionPotentials(Continued)Forthisreaction,E°=0

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