18.6-8 Kinetics-Catalysis-2020 (1).pdf - 2020/4/30 18.6...

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2020/4/301Chapter18:ChemicalKinetics18.1RatesofChemicalReactions18.2RateLaws18.3ReactionMechanisms18.4ReactionMechanismsandRate18.5EffectofTemperatureonReactionRates18.6MolecularTheoriesofElementaryReactions18.7ReactionsinSolution18.8CatalysisCumulativeExercise:SulfiteandSulfateKineticsinAtmosphericChemistryContents18.6MolecularTheoriesofElementaryReactions18.7ReactionsinSolution18.8CatalysisCumulativeExerciseContents18.6MolecularTheoriesofElementaryReactions18.7ReactionsinSolution18.8CatalysisCumulativeExercise:SulfiteandSulfateKineticsinAtmosphericChemistryCatalysisandActivationEnergyPerhapsthemostinterestingaspectofchemicalkineticsisthestudyofcatalysisitrelatestomanypracticalapplicationsCatalysisistoincreasethereactionratethroughtheadditionofasubstance(catalyst)thatisunchangedinthereactionCatalysislowertheactivationenergyofareactionCatalystsCatalystschangereactionratesbyprovidinganalternativereactionpathwaywithadifferentactivationenergy.1234
2020/4/302CatalystsAsubstancethatspeedsupareactionwithoutbeingconsumeditselfProvidesanewpathwaywithaloweractivationenergyforthereaction5EffectofaCatalystontheNumberofEffectiveCollisionsTypesofCatalysisHomogeneouscatalystsExistinthesamephaseasthereactingmoleculesHeterogeneouscatalystsexistindifferentphasesthanthereactants.7HomogeneousCatalysisExistsinthesamephaseasthereactingmolecules85678
2020/4/303HomogeneousCatalysis:ExampleIThefirstexample:ThisreactionisslowintheabsenceofacatalystIcanbeacatalystforthisreaction,tomakeitfastInsteadofgoinginabimolecularreactionwheretwohydrogenperoxideshavetocrashintoeachother,there’sanentirelydifferentpathway(loweractivationenergy)thatinvolvesI,toformwaterandhypoiodide.Then,thehydrogenperoxidereactswithhypoiodide toformwaterandI-.922222222H O ()2HO() + O(g)Rate = k[HO ]kaqHomogeneousCatalysis:ExampleINow,thereactionhastwostepsIodideandHypoiodidedonotappearinthebalancedoverallreactionThecatalystendsupunchangedbytheoverall

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