Essay 4 notes - Essay 4 notes From Isolation to Global War...

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Essay 4 notes 3/19/12 From Isolation to Global War, Part 1 I. Postwar Isolationism - War Debts and Reparations o Johnson Debt Default Act (1934) US’s attempt to keep out of loaning money in case of another world war. o Repayment based on reparations from German paying allied powers and allied powers selling goods in the US. o Raises tariffs. o Countries unable to make a lot of US dollars to pay back loans o By 1934 every country that owes money to American banks all default on their loans (besides finland). o American banks can not loan money to any of those countries that borrowed money and could not pay it back. - Disarmament o If we divide up the world’s oceans and say different countries have different domains, then all the countries only need a navy large enough to patrol their domain. o 5 Power naval treaty US and Great Britain get the largest division of the oceans All navy’s reduced in size. o 4 Power Treaty US, GB, Japan, France Each acknowledge each other’s possession in Asia. They will try and maintain possessions without trying to expand each of their holdings. o 9 Power Treaty Open door policy China agrees o Reduce need for these countries to have large armies and navies. o Very little abilities for these treaties to be enforced. o Washington Armaments Conference (1921) o Kellogg-Briand Pact (Pact of Paris, 1928) Desire to give the image of cooperation and harmony led to the French foreign minister to propose to the US secretary of state that the two countries agree never to go to war with each other. If France decides to go to war against Great Britain, France does not want the US to back Great Britain. Doesn’t keep any wars from occurring. - “Good Neighbor Policy”
o World situation, things that happen anywhere in the world will affect the whole world. II. War Clouds - Asia o Kuomintang (Chinese National Party) Initially strongest in southern china. Starts to attack foreign businesses. Starts to attack Japanese businesses. Violates the treaty with the Japanese. US says there’s nothing they can do. - Italy and Germany o Benito Mussolini, Il Duce Dictator of Italy Promises the Italians that he will bring order to them. o Adolf Hitler, Nazi party, Reichsfuhrer Gains a foothold in german parliament. Builds a base and eventually appointed chancellor of the German Republic. He starts oppressing and intimidating his opposition and critics. Able to take over both the chancellor position and the President position. Declares himself the ruler of Germany. Controls government, which only allows one party participation. Claims that he has the right to rule anyone who lives in a region of Europe that is German speaking. (Austria, northern parts of Czechoslovakia) o Reichstag - The Expanding Axis o Japan begins expanding o Mussolini invades Ethiopia (one of only self-governing countries there).

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