LECTURE 7 - INTRODUCTORY LATIN (CLAS 210 Prof ...

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Unformatted text preview: INTRODUCTORY LATIN (CLAS 210) Prof. Margaret Palczynski LECTURE 7 – 24/09/2012 Tenses Latin verbs are inflected into 4 conjugations (4 patterns). The two first principle parts of a verb determines into which conjugations it goes into. Verbs that are in the same conjugations are inflected in the same way. Latin verbs are inflected to show person, number, tense, mood, and voice. • Person: the verb agrees with its subject in person. o 1st person: I, we o 2nd person: you (sg), you (pl) o 3rd person: he/she/it, they • Number: the verb agrees with its subject in number, (e.g. he goes (sg); they go (pl) ) • Tense: in Latin, tense is a combination of time (past, present, future) and aspect (completedness, non completedness). There are six tenses in Latin built on two basic verb stems (the root of a verb in which the ending is attached to) o Imperfective stem: noncompletedness, process o Perfective stem: completedness, event • Stem: shows aspect of the action • Suffixes/ inflectional endings: indicate time (past, present, future) • Mood: indicates various characteristics, including whether an action is viewed as real/ unreal, or if it is a statement or a command. o Indicative: real (statement, question) o Imperative: command o Subjunctive: unreal (‘if’ sentences) • Voice: indicates whether or not a subject of the verb is the doer or the receiver of the action o Active: when the subject is the doer of the action o Passive: when the subject is the receiver of the action. A typical verb definition will go by the sequence of: person, number, tense, mood, voice. (e.g. he goes: 3rd person, singular, present, imperfective, indicative, active à༎ 3rd. sg. pr. Impf. Ind. act. ) Verb Principal Parts The first two principal parts are what determined which conjugation a verb is a part of. There are normally four verb principal parts (although there are some cases where there are fewer than four), and they represent the basic forms of verb à༎ giving the three basic verb stems. These principal parts MUST be memorized, as they are not predictable. Principal Part Definition Translation st person singular I. lavo 1 I wash/ I am washing present imperfective indicative active (1st sg. pr. Impf. Ind. act) II. lavare Imperfective infinitive To wash (impf. Inf.) III. lavi 1st singular present I washed/ I have washed perfective indicative active (1st. pr. Pf. Ind. act.) IV. lautus Perfective passive washed participle (pf. Pass. Pple.) (The participle: a verbal adjective: a cleaned shoe) Conjugations 1st Conjugation - o, - are (lavo, lavare) 2nd Conjugation - eo, - ere (video, videre) 3rd Conjugation - o, - ere (rego, regere) 3rd –io Conjugation - io, - ere (capio, capere) 4th Conjugation - io, - ire (audio, audire) Some verbs are irregular (e.g. volo, velle, volui – ‘want’ or sum, esse, fui – ‘to be’) and do not follow conjugation patterns. Verb Morphology The basic components of the Latin verb are the stem into which inflectional endings are attached to and the inflectional endings themselves, which determines which shows the time in which an action is conducted. a) Verb stem: The verb stem indicates the aspect of the action, whether it is non- complete (in the process/ ongoing –imperfective stem) or complete (done – perfective stem) b) Inflectional endings: The inflectional endings are suffixes to the verb stems and indicate the person (1st person, 2nd person, 3rd person), the number (singular, plural), and the voice. c) Other morphemes: (that can be added to the verb stem) - tense suffixes (e.g. lavat à༎ lavabat –changing tense from present to past) - prefixes (e.g. curro – ‘I run’; con curro – ‘ I run with’) Imperfective Stem o The imperfective stem shows noncompletedness (when an action is still ongoing and in process) o It is taken from the second principal part by taking away the ‘- re’ o It is used to from the present/ past/ future imperfective indicative forms or the imperfective infinitive form. (Both active and passive) 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th Conjugation Conjugation Conjugation Conjugation Conjugation Lavo, lavare Stem: lava- Video, videre Stem: vide- Rego, regere Stem: rege- Capio, capere Stem: cape- Audio, audire Stem: audi- The active inflectional (personal) endings of the verb Person Endings st (sg) 1 - o / - m 2nd (sg) - s rd (sg) 3 - t st (pl) 1 - mus 2nd (pl) - tis rd (pl) 3 - nt (note: - o is found in the present imperfective active and in the future imperfective active of the first and second conjugations. –m is found in the past imperfective active and in the future imperfective active of the third and fourth conjugations.) Present Imperfective Indicative Active (tense) Imperfective stem + inflectional ending 1st 2nd 3rd 3rd –io 4th Conjugation Conjugation Conjugation Conjugation Conjugation (verb stem: (verb stem: (verb stem: (verb stem: (verb stem: lava- ) vide- ) rege- ) cape- ) audi- ) st (sg) 1 Lavo Video Rego Capio Audio 2nd (sg) Lavas Vides Regis Capis Audis rd (sg) 3 Lavat Vident Regit Capit Audit st (pl) 1 Lavamus Videmus Regimus capimus Audimus 2nd (pl) Lavatis Videtis Regitis Capitis Auditis rd (pl) 3 Lavant Vident Regunt Capiunt Audiunt (note: notice that for both third conjugations, the last ‘e’ of the stem is replaced by an ‘i’ before adding the inflectional ending. Also, notice that for 3rd person plural, the 3rd conjugation completely disregard both ‘e’ and ‘i’ while the 3rd –io conjugation utilizes the ‘i’ before adding the inflectional ending ***EXERCISE*** Define and translate a) Amant à༎ 3rd pl. pr. Impf. Ind. act –They love b) Fugis à༎ 2nd sg. pr. Impf. Ind. act – You fly c) Premimus à༎ 1st pl. pr. Impf. Ind. act –We pursue d) Habetis à༎ 2nd pl. pr. Impf. Ind. act – You have e) Faciunt à༎ 3rd pl. pr. Impf. Ind. act – they do / are doing ...
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