LECTURE 5 - INTRODUCTORY LATIN (CLAS 210 Prof ...

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Unformatted text preview: INTRODUCTORY LATIN (CLAS 210) Prof. Margaret Palczynski LECTURE 5 – 17/09/2012 Self Test 1. Determine the syntactical function of the sentence elements, the status of a sentence and whether it is intransitive active or transitive active. a) Mary is singing in the dining room - Mary (s); singing (v) à༎ kernel; intransitive active b) Casar won! - Caesar (s); won (v) à༎ kernel; intranstivie active c) Marcus Antonius defeated his opponent. Marcus Antonius (s); defeated (v); opponent (DO) à༎ kernel; transitive active 2. Identify the definition for all the following Latin nouns. (Every possibilities) and convert singular forms to plural forms and vice versa a) consilium - n. sg. nom à༎ consilia - n. sg. acc à༎ consilia - n. sg. voc à༎ consilia b) populi - m. sg. gen à༎ populorum - m. pl. nom à༎ populous - m. pl. voc à༎ popule c) lupis - m. pl. abl. à༎ lupo - m. pl. dat à༎ lupo Adjectival Modifiers In Latin, there are two types of adjectival modifiers: - adjective - noun in the genitive form • If an adjective is present, it will have a noun head. A noun head is a term given to a noun that is described by the adjective. • The adjective agrees with the noun in EVERY aspect. They agree grammatically (they will agree in gender, number and case), but they do not have to be in the same form (e.g. they don’t have to both end in ‘- a’ ). • To identify the gender of an adjective, adjective suffixes are altered to suit the gender of the noun. For feminine adjectives describing feminine nouns, the adjective suffix will follow the first declension pattern. For masculine • • adjectives describing masculine nouns, the adjective suffix will follow the second declension pattern. For neuter adjectives describing neuter nouns, the adjective suffix will follow the third declension pattern. It is important to note that adjectives may precede or follow its noun head in Latin, but when metaphrased to English, the adjective has to precede the noun head. In Latin, the adjective may also be separated with other words (e.g. preposition) or phrases. Substantivized adjective: • Adjective can be a ‘stand- in’ for its noun head. • Noun head can be gapped (left out), and can be filled in by the context of the sentence and the morphology. • Substantivized adjective(s) is the syntactic equivalent of a noun and functions as a kernel item (S, DO) Nouns in the genitive as Adjectival modifier: • A noun in the genitive case normally modifies other nouns. • They are unlike other adjectives. They do agree with their noun head in terms of gender, and number, but their case differs (as they have their own case: genitive) e.g. - The beautiful woman: femina pulchra (noun head + adjective = femina (f. sg. nom); pulchra (f. sg. nom—adj.mod) - The life of the woman: vita feminae (noun head + noun in the genitive = vita (f. sg. nom); feminae (f. sg. gen) Note that ‘of’ is a common connector of an adjectival modifier with the noun head when the noun in the genitive is used as adj.mod. Semantically, the genitive case can represent: 1) Genitive possession: ownership (e.g. the man’s painting) 2) Partitive genitive: a part of a whole (e.g. one of the paintings) 3) Descriptive genitive: noun in the genitive gives additional information about its noun head (e.g. the art of painting) 4) Subjective genitive: noun in the genitive understood as the agent of the action implied in the noun head. (e.g. Michelangelo’s painting) 5) Objective genitive: a noun in the genitive is understood as the direct object of the action implied in the noun head. (e.g. The painting of Michelangelo) ***EXERCISE*** Ultima Latet Hora Ultima: f. sg. nom (adj. mod.) –final Latet: 3rd sg. pr. Impf. Ind. Act. (v) –lies hidden Hora: f. sg. nom (s) –time The final time lies hidden (the time of our death lies hidden) ...
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