Inca_Empire_Student_Materials_1_(1) - Document A Textbook Account 2018(Excerpted In the late 1300s the Inca were only a small community in the area

Inca_Empire_Student_Materials_1_(1) - Document A...

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STANFORD HISTORY EDUCATION GROUP sheg.stanford.edu Document A: Textbook Account, 2018 (Excerpted) In the late 1300s, the Inca were only a small community in the area of Cuzco, a city located at 11,000 feet in the mountains of southern Peru. In the 1440s, however, under the leadership of the ruler Pachacuti, the Inca launched a campaign of conquest that eventually brought the entire region under Inca control. . . . Pachacuti and his immediate successors, Topa Inca Yupanqui and Huayna Capac Inca— Inca means “ruler”—extended the boundaries of the Inca Empire as far as Ecuador, central Chile, and the edge of the Amazon basin. The empire included perhaps 12 million people. The Inca state was built on war. All young men were required to serve in the Inca army. With some 200,000 members, the army was the largest and best armed in the region. . . . After an area was placed under Inca control, the local inhabitants were instructed in the Quechua language. Control of new territories was carefully regulated. A noble of high rank was sent to govern the new region. Local leaders could keep their posts as long as they were loyal to the Inca ruler. To encourage loyalty, the children of local leaders were taken as hostages to the Inca capital, where they were educated in Inca ways before returning home. . . . Forced labor was another important feature of the state. All Inca subjects were responsible for labor service, usually for several weeks each year. Laborers, often with their entire communities, were moved according to need from one part of the country to another to take part in building projects. Source: Spielvogel, Jackson J., and Jay McTighe, 2018. World History and Geography . Vocabulary hostage: a person held captive
STANFORD HISTORY EDUCATION GROUP sheg.stanford.edu Document B: Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa, 1572 (Modified) Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa was a Spanish sea captain and royal scientist. The following excerpt is from his book The History of the Incas, completed in 1572. Sarmiento wrote this book in Cusco on orders of the Spanish viceroy of Peru, near the end of the Spanish Conquest of the Inca Empire. The Inca preserved their history through oral histories and quipus . Sarmiento carefully collected the data for his book by interviewing the surviving Inca nobility about their history. He wrote his account to argue that the Inca were not the rightful rulers of the Andes and that instead the Spanish were. THE NATIONS THAT PACHACUTI INCA DESTROYED AND THE TOWNS HE ATTACKED; FIRST, TOCAY CAPAC, THE RULER OF THE AYAMARCAS Near the Cusco Valley is a nation of Indians called Ayarmacas who had a proud and wealthy ruler named Tocay Capac. Neither he nor the Ayarmacas wanted to pay homage to the Inca. Instead, they sought to ready their weapons against the

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