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Unformatted text preview: REGIONAL OFFICE FOR EDUCATION IN AFRICA (BREDA) GUIDE TO TEACHING AND LEARNING IN HIGHER EDUCATION Edited by Pai Obanya Juma Shabani Peter Okebukola CONTENTS Foreword Acknowledgement Introduction MODULE 1 Understanding the Higher Education Learner 2 Profile of the Higher Education Teacher 3 Curriculum Development in Higher Education 4 Teaching and Learning Methods in Higher Education 5 Teaching Large Classes 6 New Technologies in Teaching and Learning in Higher Education 7 Delivery of Higher Education Using Distance Learning Methodologies 8 Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education 9 Empowering Women for Success in Higher Education 10 Empowering Students with Special Needs 11 Evaluation in Higher Education ACKNOWLEDGEMENT T he contributions of several individuals and organisations to the development of this Guide are gratefully acknowledged, While space hinders the listing of all such contributors, mention needs to be made of some persons and agencies who were core in the writing, review and editing of the drafts and to the finalisation and production of the Guide. Authoring the first draft of the initial six modules were Amy Davies (Understanding the Higher Education Learner), Sandy Bockarie (Curriculum Development in Higher Education), Flore Gangbo (Teaching and Learning Methods), Gabriel Ntunaguza (New and Emerging Technologies in Higher Education), Hamidou Nacuzon Sall (Evaluation of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education), Peter Okebukola (Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education), and Geoffrey Mmari (Distance Learning in Higher Education). Then came a team to fortify this start. In this team were Muhib Opeloye, Gabriel Ajewole, Ade Orukotan, Uche Nzewi, Olu Jegede, Nwabuno Nwaboku, Michael Ahove, Anthony Kola-Olusanya, Grace Alele-Williams, Sam Bajah, Udogie Ivowi, Julius Akinboye, Babatunde Ipaye, C.O. Oguntonade, Philomena Fayose, Makhubu, and P. Mlama. The expansion in scope saw the entry of four additional modules into the Guide. Saddled with the task of crafting the modules were Peter Okebukola, Adedayo Olarewaju, Tony Kola-Olusanya (The Profile of the Higher Education Teacher), Eunice Okeke, Yinka Ogunlade and Mercy Ogunsola-Bandele (Empowering Women for Success in Higher Education), Taoheed Adedoja, C. Abosi, ??Sarr (Empowering Students with Special Needs), and Peter Okebukola (Teaching Large Classes). A powerful review team from Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia, University of Cocody, Cote d’Ivoire, Rand Afrikaans University, South Africa, Indira Gandhi National Open University, India, University of South Carolina, USA and Open University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, made useful comments for the review of the Guide. The review process also benefitted from the comments of participants at the regional workshops collated by the workshop coordinators: Peter Okebukola (Ibadan, Nigeria), ???? (Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire), Carlos Machili (Maputo, Mozambique), Amare Asgedom (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia), and Susan van deVingt and Salim Akoojie (Johannesburg, South Africa). i Grateful thanks are extended to Professor Peter Okebukola of Lagos State University, Nigeria and his team of fourteen experts from all over Africa, India, Hong Kong and in the US for the praiseworth efforts in the finalisation of the Guide. Lastly, but by no means the least, we record our appreciation to the Episcopal Conference of Italy for providing funding support for the project. ii INTRODUCTION In 1994, the UNESCO Regional Office for Education in Africa (BREDA) working through its Higher Education Unit, initiated a project to improve the delivery of higher education in Africa. The impetus for this initiative was the pursuit of the BREDA vision of ensuring qualitative education at all levels of the educational system in Africa, in this case, at the higher education level. The term 'higher education' is taken to embody all organised leaning and training activities at the tertiary level. This includes conventional universities (i.e. those with the conventional arts, humanities and science faculties) as well as specialised universities (like institutions specialising in agriculture, engineering, science and technology). The concept also includes conventional post-secondary institutions (like polytechnics, colleges of education, and "grandes ecoles'). Under the umbrella of 'higher education' come all forms of professional institutions drawing from the available pool of persons who have completed a variety of forms of secondary education: institutions for the military, the police, nurses, agriculture, forestry, veterinary workers, catering services, tourism, secretarial services and other possible combinations of programmes. The BREDA initiative under the leadership of Professor Pai Obanya translated into a project which received funding support from the Episcopal Conference of Italy and implemented by the unit of higher education at BREDA. The main objective of the regional project is to improve the relevance and quality of higher education in Africa. Two main strategies were employed in order to achieve this objective. These were institutional capacity building in teaching, and improvement of the learning environment. Phase 1 of the project started in 1995 with two needs assessment surveys; one in francophone countries and the other in anglophone countries. The needs assessment surveys recommended the organisation of training workshops for university management and heads of pedagogic units on the need for promoting teaching and learning in higher education in Africa. In response to this recommendation, BREDA organised 3 sub-regional workshops: * Francophone: Dakar, Senegal, May 1996 iii * Anglophone: Nairobi, Kenya, November 1996 * Portuguese speaking countries in Luanda, Angola, July 1997 One of the major outcomes of the sub-regional training workshops was the recommendation that BREDA should explore appropriate strategies to reach as many institutions as possible and to help them improve teaching skills and the learning environment. In response to these recommendations, Professor Obanya proposed the development of a Guide on Teaching and Learning in Higher Education. Consequently, Phase 2 of the project focused on the preparation and the production of the Guide. This phase had the following activities: * Preparation of a draft outline of content containing five modules. * Experts' workshop to prepare a first draft of the guide, on the basis of the proposed outline of content and the materials produced during Phase 1 of the project. The experts proposed two additional modules: Modules 6 and 7. After two weeks of intensive work, the experts produced a first draft of the Guide containing 7 modules (These are modules 1 to 7 of the draft guide). There came the need to test and enrich the draft guide in order to take into account the needs, expectations and vision of the entire higher education community in Africa. Strategies were designed to conduct a series of national workshops in countries with relatively large number of higher education institutions. The first national workshop was held in Ibadan in September 1998. The workshop recommended adding Module 8: Gender Issues and Student with special needs. The production of the second draft guide was made effective under supervision of Professor Peter Okebukola. Another workshop followed in Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire, in May 1999 under the coordination of BREDA/IDRC. It recommended splitting Module 8 into two and including issues of 'Large classes' in higher education. The fourth workshop was held in Kenya in Eldoret, in May 1999. Another short meeting was held in Maputo, in June 1999. This was followed by the workshop in South Africa at Wits University from 13-17 September, 1999. So far, we have mobilised over 500 academics drawn from various areas of learning and reflecting the entire higher education system in Africa. In the process of discussion of the Draft Guide the participants to the various workshops were able to identify the major areas which require urgent reforms in order to iv improve the relevance and the quality of higher education systems in Africa. These areas include policy issues, management practices, funding strategies and research. BREDA is planning to publish a resource book in order to document these issues. The finalisation of the Guide using comments from the various national and subregional workshops and a wide array of experts in the field was undertaken under the coordination of Professor Peter Okebukola. The Guide is published in three languagesEnglish, French and Portuguese. In order to reach as many academics and institutions as possible, follow-up national, zonal and institutional workshops are being encouraged. It is our hope that organisers and participants at these workshops will use this Guide as one of the resource materials This way, we will be on course towards improving quality and relevance of higher education in Africa. v GUIDE TO TEACHING AND LEARNING IN HIGHER EDUCATION Module 1 Understanding the Higher Education Learner MODULE 1:Understanding the Higher Education Learner 1.1 GUIDE TO TEACHING AND LEARNING IN HIGHER EDUCATION JUST BEFORE YOU BEGIN Reflect on the following as you work through this Module The Forum of students associations in Africa formulated the following proposals for action, which constitute the students’ vision on the role of higher education in the construction of a new society. IMPROVING THE RELEVANCE OF EDUCATION The forum urge Member States to establish educational programmes capable not only of responding effectively to the constant changes in the labour market, but also of anticipating rather than enduring them. Taking into account the saturation of employment opportunities in the public service and the worsening of the phenomenon of graduate unemployment, the forum recommends the establishment of appropriate higher educational systems to train graduates who can constantly update and improve their knowledge and skills and also create jobs. The forum also recommends that necessary measures be taken by Member states to enable graduates willing to create jobs to secure funding for their projects. The forum considers that, in carrying out their mission of providing services to the community, higher educational institutions should give greater importance to civic education so as to promote human rights, tolerance and a culture of peace and democracy. The forum recommends the establishments of partnership between Source: Faculties/Schools and enterprises to enable the higher educational HIGHER EDUCATION institutions to take account of enterprises’ needs and provide students FOR A NEW AFRICA: opportunities for research, and internships in the enterprises. A STUDENTS’ VISION The forum recommends that higher educational institutions organise FORUM OF STUDENT periodic tracer studies and conduct surveys among employers to ensure ASSOCIATIONS IN a regular adaptation of curricula to the expansion of knowledge and the AFRICA ON HIGHER changes in job market. EDUCATION IN THE 21ST CENTURY, The forum stressed the need for higher educational institutions to help ACCRA (GHANA) 23 – students secure funds for research as well as access to the new 25 MARCH, 1998 information and communication technologies. MODULE 1:Understanding the Higher Education Learner 1.2 GUIDE TO TEACHING AND LEARNING IN HIGHER EDUCATION The forum considers that it is necessary to set up appropriate mechanisms for monitoring and assessing the accomplishment of missions set for higher educational institutions. ENHANCING THE QUALITY OF EDUCATION The forum recommends that each member state set up and/or strengthens structures to monitor and assess the quality of services provided by higher educational institutions as part of their functions. The forum recommends that higher educational institutions set up mechanisms for the assessment of the academic staff by students. The forum recommends that member states take necessary measures to ensure that the entire university community, including students, enjoy more conducive living and working conditions. Article 10. Higher education personnel and students as major actors c. National and Institutional decision-makers should place students and their needs at the centre of their concerns, and should consider them as major partners and responsible stakeholders in the renewal of higher education. This should include student involvement in issues that affect that level of education, in evaluation, the renovation of teaching methods and curricula and, in the institutional framework in force, in policy-formulation and institutional management. As students have the right to organise and represent themselves, students' involvement in these issues should be guaranteed. MODULE 1:Understanding the Higher Education Learner 1.3 Extracted from the: DECLARATION OF THE UNESCO WORLD CONFERENCE ON HIGHER EDUCATION (1998) GUIDE TO TEACHING AND LEARNING IN HIGHER EDUCATION 1.0 Introduction and General Objectives Introduction An understanding of the characteristics and needs of the learner is a key factor for success in higher education. Using an agricultural analogy, knowledge of the nature of the soil and climatic conditions of a farming area is an important ingredient for success for the farmer. As yield is dependent on such data, so is the effectiveness of teaching largely dependent on the nature of the learner. We need to factor into instructional planning, such learner variables as demographics (e.g. age and gender), psychological characteristics (e.g. motivation and self-concept), sociological characteristics (e.g. friendship and social linkages), cultural background, religious affiliation, quality of preparation at the secondary school level, marital status and family background. It is probably a tall order to ask the lecturer to know these characteristics for every student in the class. In a class of 200 for a term of twelve weeks or a semester of fifteen weeks, it is obviously a steep task. However, it is possible even for a larger number of students and for a shorter period, to attempt an understanding of the general profile of the class on these characteristics. Armed with these profiles and with the knowledge of outlying cases, the higher education teacher can then meaningfully plan and implement a course of instruction for students. In this module, you will GENERAL review the status of the learner in transition from secondary to higher OBJECTIVES education; identify the psychosocial characteristics of learners in higher education; describe the factors affecting the psychosocial development of higher education learners; MODULE 1:Understanding the Higher Education Learner 1.4 GUIDE TO TEACHING AND LEARNING IN HIGHER EDUCATION develop instruments for measuring some learner characteristics; and identify the exit profile of the learner. 1.1 The Higher Education Learner in Transition Introduction Secondary education is over. With the necessary entry requirements and funds, it is now time to proceed for further studies within the higher education sub-system. The port of call could be a University, Technikon/Polytechnic, College of Education or other institution that falls within the higher education description. The shift from secondary to higher education begins with a period of transition. The transition period is characterised by a lot more freedom – no more school uniforms, assembly at 8.00 a.m., lights out, punishment by seniors and inhibition from attending parties. Prospective higher education learners bring with them various social and educational experiences. We expect that our interventions would foster desirable changes in behaviour and enhance positive characteristics. Improved understanding of our learners’ antecedents at the point of entry would help us select appropriate educational experiences as well as provide adequate guidance and counselling services. At the end of this Unit you will be able to: SPECIFIC describe the academic and social antecedents of the higher education learner; OBJECTIVES determine the factors which impact on the learner’s ability to learn; and assess the selection/admission procedures of your institution and department. MODULE 1:Understanding the Higher Education Learner 1.5 GUIDE TO TEACHING AND LEARNING IN HIGHER EDUCATION The Concept of Transition The formal education system in all countries of the world is segmented into cycles – primary, secondary and higher. Within each cycle, there is movement from one level to another e.g from primary 1 to 2 or from secondary class 2 to 3. This is intra-cycle Is that you Wambui? Olu, thank God I got transition. There is Congratulations on your admission this year after two also inter-cycle admission to the university. trials. I was admitted to read transition. This is from What course were you Medicine. I heard you were admitted to read Science admitted for? primary to secondary or Education. from secondary to higher education. As the learner moves from one level or cycle to another, there are changes that are noteworthy for the teacher. At the period of transition, there are physical, psychomotor, socio-affective, emotional, intellectual (cognitive) and aspirational changes. As lecturers, we want to take the learner through the change process in a smooth, gradual and painless way. We want the interphase between the end of secondary education and the freshman year to blend. No bumps, no dramatic shifts and no agonising changes. To achieve this, we need a deep understanding of the characteristics of learners at the two poles – end of secondary education and the fresh student year. In Box 1.1 is a summary of the findings of a self-report survey of a final year secondary school student. Similar data are presented – Box 1.2 for a fresh student in a university after a week of lectures. MODULE 1:Understanding the Higher Education Learner 1.6 GUIDE TO TEACHING AND LEARNING IN HIGHER EDUCATION Box 1.1 I have just finished my University Matriculation Examination I am 16 years old. I attended a boys-only school. I was a day student and had to leave home at 6.30a.m to catch the bus to school. Many of my friends in the science class want to read medicine. I made pharmacy the first choice of course since my parents cannot afford the cost of medical school. At school, the teachers hardly give individual attention to students since the classes are large. We do afternoon lessons to improve our understanding of topics taught in the morning. I am looking forward to going to the university for my degree in pharmacy. From the stories I have heard, as an undergraduate I will have my freedom from my parents and I will have more time for other things. Box 1.2 Lectures, tutorials and field trips are new to me. We did not have such labels when I was in secondary school. New titles also-Professor, Dean, ViceChancellor/Rector/Provost. Oh! The university is sweet; a world of its own. We are told that now, we have “academic freedom”. I have found that the freedom is exhibited in different ways – what students and lecturers say and write, how students dress and how students interact. In our hall of residence, male students are free to come into our rooms between 10.00 a.m and 7.30 p.m. I have to adjust to this as no male student can enter our hostel when I was in the secondary school. My God, I have a lot of adjustments to do especially in my study habits and social relations. I am sure things will be OK. MODULE 1:Understanding the Higher Education Learner 1.7 GUIDE TO TEACHING AND LEARNING IN HIGHER EDUCATION Academic and Social Antecedents of the Higher Education Learner Who are prospective higher education learners? The majority are young male and female adults aged between 16-26 years who have had 12-14 years of formal education. They would have obtained the school leaving certificate with the minimum pass grades to earn them places in higher educational institutions. As primary and secondary sc...
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