Abdomen and Urinary Quiz- Abdomen is the largest cavity of the body that contains 3 systems: Digestive Urinary Reproductive - The Alimentary Canal hollow tube from mouth to anus of the patient. - How long is esophagus? 10 inches. - How long is the stomach? Dependent on how much you eat. The more you eat, the more it stretches. - How long is the small intestines? 18-21 feet. - How long is the small intestines? 5.0-5.5 feet. - The largest gland is the: Liver -Largest organ is the: Skin - Liver functions: Produces Bile Produces AntibodiesProduce substance for coagulating the bloodDetoxifies harmful substance in the body Stores vitaminsAids in protein, fat and carb metabolism- Function of Gallbladder Release and stores bile for fat emulsification - The Pancreas is both endocrine and exocrine gland. Endocrine: Secretes insulin for carb and sugar metabolism.Exocrine: Secretes pancreatic juice to assist with digestion of protein, fat and carbs- The largest lymphoid organ: Spleen - Function of spleenGraveyard for red blood cellsSite for lymphocytic proliferation and immune surveillanceFilters bloodDestroys warn out RBC’s and returns warn out product to the liver. -Urinary system composed of: KidneysUreters
Bladder Urethra - Glomeruli are clusters of capillaries of the kidney that filter at least 1 liter of fluid per minute. - Landmark of Urinary System: Costovertebral angleRectus abdominusSymphysis pubis- Abdominal Landmark for reference point: Xiphoid processUmbilicusCostal marginIliac crestsPubic bones- Urinary elimination is a major concern as an individual advances in age because they end up with: Urinary incontinenceUrinary retentionFrequency of voiding or urgency- By the age of 75 there is a loss of nephrons which leads to less glomerular filtration leading to susceptibility of elderly to drug toxicity. We have to be very careful with drug dosages for elderly. - Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy (BPH): at the age of 55 and above for male 95% will have BPH resulting in urinary retention or trickling when voiding. - Urolithiasis or renal calculi are stones that block the urinary tract. It is more common in Caucasian. Nursing responsibility is to strain urine and save renal stones to report to doctor.