Quiz 4 concepts .docx - Quiz#4 4 chambers of the heart o Left ventricle is the largest o Females have a slightly smaller heart than males o Pediatric

Quiz 4 concepts .docx - Quiz#4 4 chambers of the heart o...

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Quiz #4 4 chambers of the heart o Left ventricle is the largest o Females have a slightly smaller heart than males o Pediatric heart— PMI: located at 4 th ICS MCL ( peds heart is more horizontally position) o Adult heart— PMI: located AT 5 TH ICS MCL Heart is placed oblique in adults from the 2 nd rib down to the 5 th ICS MCL PMI can be auscultated and palpated o Precordium Contains the Aortic, Pulmonic, Erb’s, Tricuspid, Mitral locations o Adults heart has the base at the top and apex at the bottom. The lungs are opposite! o Heart beats 100,000x in an hour o Heart muscle is 5in long, 3.5in diameter, thickness 2.5in o 60,000miles of blood vessels Stroke volume o Amount of blood that is ejected with each heartbeat. Normal= 55-100 ml/beat o * Formula = cardiac output/heart rate Cardiac output o Amount of blood ejected from the left ventricle over 1 minute. Normal Adult= 4 to 8 liters/minute o * Formula = stroke volume x heart rate Cardiac index o Measurement accounting for an individual’s weight when evaluating the pumping action of the heart. o * Formula = cardiac output/body surface area (body surface area (BSA) is obtained from published tables). Pericardium —thin layer, double sac that houses the heart---if infected/inflamed nurse will hear friction rub (sandpaper-like) upon auscultation S1 “Lub” closure of the atrioventricular valves (AV) heard louder than S2 at the apex of the heart where the tricuspid and mitral valves close—Tricuspid @4 th ICS left sternal border & Mitral @5 th ICS MCL left sternal border S2 “Dub”—closure of the semilunar valves— heard the louder than S1 at the base of the heart where the aortic and pulmonic valves close—Aortic @2 nd ICS Right sternal border & Pulmonic @ 2 nd ICS Left sternal border Pulmonic valve separates the R ventricle from the trunk of the pulmonary artery Aortic valve separates the L ventricle for the aorta Erb’s point—@3 rd ICS, left sternal border
o S1=S2 S3 and S4 —typically associated with myocardial pathology (MI, CHF, Angina, Ventricular Hypertrophy) o S3 follows S2 (lub dub tah) (ventricular gallop) o S4 precedes S1 (tah lub dub) (atrial gallop) o S3 and S4 can occur in normal patients with no cardiac conditions o

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