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Concept review week 3 Physical Assessment Functional Unit of the Lungs: Alveoli When we are assessing for the resonance sound of the lungs we do it in intercoastal spaces Technique for assessing resonance sounds: indirect percussion.When we are percussing the normal sounds we will hear is resonance sound. When there is air trapped in the lungs on percussion we will hear: Hyper Resonance Sound, its louderOther name for thorax is your chest: it is a closed cavity containing structure for respiration. The three sections of the respiratory system are: mediastinum (membranous partition between the lungs), right and left pleural cavity Right lung has 3 lobes, the left lung has 2 lobes What is known as external respiration: exchange of 02and CO2at the alveoli level of the lungs Internal respiration: exchange of 02and CO2at the cellular level Normal adult respiration rate per minute is 12-20 at rest Below 12= bradypnea(regular rhythm) or hypoventilation (irregular rhythm)Above 20= tachypnea (Shallow and rapid ) or hyperventilation (deep and rapid)You have to differentiate if its deep or shallowThe respiratory rate of newborn is usually higher from the intrauterine to extrauterine in adjusting to the external environment, so it is 40 to 80x per minute and it is regular. At the age of 5 it usually goes down to 35 per minute. If you are assessing a newborn baby it is important to assess the nasal passageways because the newborn can have respiratory failure right away. Their could be a congenital defect known as: choanal atresia= congenital defect where the membrane obstructs the nasal passageways of a newborn and it must be assessed right away. Respiratory cycle- breathing and respiration is used interchangeably The two phases of respiration: inspiration (active phase) and expiration (passive phase)On lung auscultation we always listen in the intercostal spaces at the midclavicular line So when we are listening and we heard medial beat sound in equal inspiration and expiration weare listening to the bronchovesicular breath sounds.