Chapter 4 - Nutrition Anxiety Mother's general health...

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1 1 Prenatal Influences on Development • Nutrition • Anxiety Mother’s general health Maternal age Teratogens—any agent that causes a birth defect (e.g., drugs, radiation, viruses) 2 Drugs (for example…) Over the counter • Alcohol • Cocaine • Heroin • Nicotine Excess vitamins 3 Diseases (for example…) • Rubella • HIV • Toxoplasmosis • Herpes • Syphilis • Influenza 4 Infant Abilities Infants are born with immature visual system – can detect movement and large objects – Gaze at human faces Other senses function well on day 1 – will orient to sounds – turn away from unpleasant odors – prefer sweet to sour tastes – Recognize mother’s voice Born with a number of reflex behaviors
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2 5 The Competent Newborn Infants are born with reflexes that aid in survival, including rooting reflex which helps them locate food. Reflexes Present at Birth (and How Long They Last) Withdrawal (10 days) Stepping (2 months) Sucking (3 months) Rooting (3-4 months) Palmar grasp (4 months) Startle (5 months) Swimming (6 months) Tonic neck (7 months) Plantar (1 year) Babinski (1 year) Eye blink (life) 7 Physical Development Infants’ psychological development depends on their biological development. To understand the emergence of motor skills and memory, we must understand the developing brain . 8 Developing Brain At birth, most brain cells are present. After birth, the neural networks multiply resulting in increased physical and mental abilities.
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3 9 Maturation The development of the brain unfolds based on genetic instructions, causing various bodily and mental functions to occur in sequence— standing before walking, babbling before talking—this is called maturation . Maturation sets the basic course of development, while experience adjusts it. 10 Maturation and Infant Memory The earliest age of conscious memory is around 3 ! years (Bauer, 2002). A 5-year-old has a sense of self and an increased long-term memory, thus organization of memory is different from 3-4 years. 11 Cognitive Development Piaget believed that the driving force behind intellectual development is our biological development amidst experiences with the environment. Our cognitive development is shaped by the errors we make. 12 Schemas Schemas are mental molds into which we pour our experiences.
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4 13 Assimilation and Accommodation The process of assimilation involves incorporating new experiences into our current understanding (schema). The process of adjusting a schema and modifying it is called accommodation . 14 Sensorimotor Stage In the sensorimotor stage, babies take in the world by looking, hearing, touching, mouthing, and grasping. Children younger than 6 months of age do not understand object permanence , i.e., objects that are out of sight are also out of mind.
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