Chapter 7 - 1 1 Learning Chapter 7 2 Learning is a relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience Learning is more

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Unformatted text preview: 1 1 Learning Chapter 7 2 Learning is a relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience. Learning is more fexible in comparison to the genetically-programmed behaviors oF salmon, For example. 3 How do we learn? • We learn by association. Our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence. 4 2 5 Acquisition Acquisition is the initial learning stage in classical conditioning in which an association between a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus takes place. In most cases, for conditioning to occur, the neutral stimulus needs to come before the unconditioned stimulus. The time between the two stimuli should be about half a second. 6 Associative Learning • Learning to associate one stimulus with another -- the basis for classical conditioning 7 • Advertising uses classical conditioning • What kinds of associations are promoted in advertising? 8 Extinction When the US (food) does not follow the CS (tone), CR (salivation) begins to decrease and eventually causes extinction. 3 9 Spontaneous Recovery After a rest period, an extinguished CR (salivation) spontaneously recovers, but if the CS (tone) persists alone, the CR becomes extinct again. 10 Stimulus Generalization Tendency to respond to stimuli similar to the CS is called generalization . Pavlov conditioned the dog’s salivation (CR) by using miniature vibrators (CS) on the thigh. When he subsequently stimulated other parts of the dog’s body, salivation dropped. 11 Stimulus Discrimination Discrimination is the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus. 12 Classical Conditioning can be used to elicit emotional responses • Watson and Rayner conditioned a baby to fear a white rat • Generalized to other white fuzzy things • Some phobias may be acquired this way 4 13 14 Extending Pavlov’s Understanding Pavlov and Watson considered consciousness, or mind, unft For the scientifc study oF psychology. However, they underestimated the importance oF cognitive processes and biological constraints . 15 Biological Predispositions Pavlov and Watson believed that laws oF learning were similar For all animals....
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course PSYCH 100 taught by Professor Cave during the Spring '08 term at UMass (Amherst).

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Chapter 7 - 1 1 Learning Chapter 7 2 Learning is a relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience Learning is more

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