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Chapter 8 - What is the most important thing we do with...

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1 •What is the most important thing we do with memory? •Do we have more than one kind of memory? 2 The Phenomenon of Memory Memory is any indication that learning has persisted over time. It is our ability to store and retrieve information. 3 How to “make the memories last?” Encoding Storage Retrieval Different Types of Memory We have different memory stores for different purposes Each has a – Duration How long memories last – Capacity How much information can be stored – Function What we do with the information
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2 5 Making Memories: Encoding The world Sensory memory Short-term or Working memory Long-term memory Rehearsal Information moves through each memory store Sensory Memory • Properties – Very short duration (less than 1 second) – Large capacity Lingering activation in perceptual areas of the brain 8 Sensory Memories Iconic 0.5 sec. long Echoic 3-4 sec. long Hepatic < 1 sec. long The duration of sensory memory varies for the different senses.
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3 9 Sensory memory Echoic memory Iconic memory The Sperling Technique Letters flashed quickly Arrow appears next to one row Write down letters from that row What Sperling Showed Full report (first trial) – 3-4 correct Partial report (later trials) – 3-4 correct (any row) SM has a large capacity and short duration Attention plays a key role in moving information from SM to WM Recap: Sensory Memory • Properties – Very short duration (less than 1 second) – Large capacity Lingering activation in perceptual areas of the brain Studied in vision using the Sperling technique
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4 13 Working Memory A newer understanding of short-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual- spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory Working Memory • Properties: – Short duration (a few seconds) – Small capacity (7+ 2 items or about 4 “chunks”) Examples of how we use: – Remembering telephone numbers – Language use – Getting information to long-term memory “Extending” Working Memory We use strategies to “extend” WM Increasing capacity – Chunking Increasing duration – Rehearsal 16 Chunking F-B-I-T-W-A-C-I-A-I-B-M The capacity of the working memory may be increased by “chunking.” FBI TWA CIA IBM 4 chunks
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5 17 Chunking Organizing items into a familiar, manageable unit. Try to remember the numbers below. 1-7-7-6-1-4-9-2-1-8-1-2-1-9-4-1 If you are well versed in American history, chunk the numbers together and see if you can recall them better. 1776 1492 1812 1941.
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