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Chapter 9 - Thinking Language Intelligence Chapter 9...

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1 1 Thinking, Language, & Intelligence Chapter 9 2 Concepts The mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people. There are a variety of chairs but their common features define the concept of a chair . 3 Why are concepts and categories Useful? Simplify memory storage We can understand cases we have never encountered before “pointers to knowledge” Allows inferences about new objects based on old members of same category. 4 Category Hierarchies We organize concepts into category hierarchies.
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2 5 Development of Concepts We form some concepts with definitions. For example, a triangle is a three-sided figure. Mostly, we form concepts with mental images or typical examples ( prototypes ). For example, a robin is a prototypical bird, but an ostrich is not. 6 Problem Solving Problem solving strategies include: Trial and Error Algorithms Heuristics Insight 7 Algorithms Algorithms, which are very time consuming, exhaust all possibilities before arriving at a solution. Computers use algorithms. S P L O Y O C H Y G If we were to unscramble these letters to form a word using an algorithmic approach, we would face 907,200 possibilities. 8 Heuristics Heuristics are simple, thinking strategies that allow us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently. Heuristics are less time consuming, but more error-prone than algorithms.
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3 9 Heuristics Heuristics make it easier for us to use simple principles to arrive at solutions to problems. 10 Insight Insight involves a sudden novel realization of a solution to a problem. Humans and animals have insight. 11 Confirmation Bias Most people tend to seek confirming evidence rather than disconfirming evidence. 12 Obstacles in Solving Problems Confirmation Bias: A tendency to search for information that confirms a personal bias. 2 – 4 – 6 Rule: Any ascending series of numbers. 1 – 2 – 3 would comply. Wason’s students had difficulty figuring out the rule due to a confirmation bias (Wason, 1960).
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4 13 Fixation Fixation: An inability to see a problem from a fresh perspective. This impedes problem solving. An example of fixation is functional fixedness. The Matchstick Problem: How would you arrange six matches to form four equilateral triangles? 14 Functional fixedness – functions we think of for objects are inflexible 15 Representativeness Heuristic Judging the likelihood of things or objects in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, a particular prototype. If you meet a slim, short, man who wears glasses and likes poetry, what do you think his profession would be? An Ivy league professor or a truck driver? 16 Availability Heuristic Why does our availability heuristic lead us astray? Whatever increases the ease of retrieving information increases its perceived availability.
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