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Chapter 03 Student: ___________________________________________________________________________ 1. The special molecules that have large structures and characteristically made by living organisms are known as ________. A. macromolecules B. polysaccharides C. proteins D. carbon 2. Organic molecules contain a specific carbon-based core to which specific groups of atoms with definite chemical properties are attached. These groups of atoms are called ________ groups. A. carbon B. extension C. functional D. chemical 3. Three of the four macromolecules present in living systems are ________ which means they are built by linking together small, similar chemical monomers. A. polymers B. functional C. evolved D. carbon-based 4. Proteins that can carry out catalysis in organisms are called ______. A. catalysts B. reactants C. cofactors D. enzymes 5. In _________ the average chain length of amylose is much greater and there are more branches than in plant starch. A. proteins B. cellulose C. glucose D. glycogen
6. A modified form of cellulose found in the exoskeletons of insects and crustaceans is known as _______. A. chitin B. glucose C. protein D. glycogen 7. Non-polarity and insolubility characterize biological compounds known as _______. A. carbohydrates B. lipids C. proteins D. nucleic acids 8. __________ are polymers containing up to 20 different kinds of naturally occurring amino acids. A. lipids B. proteins C. carbohydrates D. nucleic acids 9. The covalent bonds connecting monomer units in sugars can be formed by the removal of a water molecule. A reaction referred to as ________________. A. conjunction B. hydration C. dehydration D. condensation 10. This atom in its unbound state has four valent electrons. These electrons readily form single, double, and even triple bonds among themselves to become stable. This atom is A. carbon. B. hydrogen. C. oxygen. D. nitrogen. E. phosphorus. 11. Macromolecules are disassembled in ____________ reactions. A. anabolic B. hydrolysis C. radioactive D. denaturation E. dehydration
12. Relatively small organic molecules with a central carbon atom which is bonded to a carboxyl group, an amino group, a carbon containing group, and a hydrogen atom are called A. amino acids. B. fatty acids. C. enzymes. D. peptides. E. nucleotides. 13. Macromolecules that are used by organisms to store hereditary information are called A. transfer RNA molecules. B. messenger RNA molecules. C. ribosomal RNA molecules. D. amino acids molecules. E. DNA molecules. 14. DNA, RNA, and ATP contain functional units known as A. peptides. B. enzymes. C. amino acids. D. nucleotides. E. fatty acids. 15. Which of the following is not a property of carbon? A. It can form single, double, and even triple bonds with itself. B. It can be built into rings and long chains.
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