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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 4: Developing through the lifespan Developmental Psychology – a branch of psychology that studies the physical, cognitive and social change throughout the lifespan Major Issues Nature v. Nurture – how genetics and experience shape our development Continuity v. Stages – is development gradual or does it happen in specific stages. Researchers have concluded that development is a slow, continuous process. Stability v. change –do our personality traits persist throughout life or do we change as we age Evidence for both, we change in some ways, not in others, depends on individual and their experiences Prenatal Development Zygote-fertilized egg that divides rapidly. Placenta developed Embryo- zygotes inner cells become the embryo. Considered an embryo after two weeks after fertilization though second month Fetus- considered a fetus from 9 weeks until birth. Organs develop. Possible Threats to development Teratogens – chemicals and viruses that can reach the embryo or fetus and cause harm. Can be in the form of drugs, AIDS, carcinogens, alcohol (Fetal Alcohol Syndrome). Effects : depressed activity in nervous systems, low body weight, may lead to cognitive deficits The Competent Newborn Abilities-turn our heads towards stimuli Preference for mother’s smell, voice Infancy and Childhood Rapid frontal lobe development. Muscles and nervous system mature and child is able to do more complicated skills such as rolling over, sitting unsupported, crawling, and eventually walking. Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor – Birth -2 years, experiencing the world through senses and actions Object permanence, stranger anxiety Preoperational – 2-7 years, representing things with words and images, lack of logical reasoning. Characterized by pretend play and egocentrism, theory of mind Concrete Operational – 7-11years, thinking logically about concrete events Conservation, Mathematical transformations Formal Operational –12 years through adulthood, abstract reasoning, logic, moral reasoning Problems Not cut and dry stages Piaget did not give kids enough credit Social Development Stranger anxiety-evaluating people as unfamiliar and possible threatening. Develops around 8 months. Attachment- bodily contact (Harlow) Familiarity, imprinting (Lorenz) Secure v. insecure Parenting Styles Authoritarian – strict obedience to rules Authoritative- demanding and responsive, explain rules, allow exceptions Permissive- submit to children’s desired without making many demands Indifferent-neglect, little attention Adolescence Cognitive Development Developing reasoning power Morality (Kohlberg) Pre-conventional- self interest to avoid punishment or to be rewarded Conventional –cares for others upholds laws and social rules because they are rules....
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course PSYCH 100 taught by Professor Cave during the Spring '08 term at UMass (Amherst).
- Spring '08
- Developmental Psychology